Optimization of Adsorption Parameters for Lead (II) Removal from Wastewater using Box-Behnken Design
Optimization of Al 6063 Button Head Rivet FEM Analysis Subjected to CRYO ECAP and RT ECAP
Effect of (SiC+Gr) Addition on the Corrosion Behavior of Powder Metallurgy Copper MMC
Assessment of Reuse Potential of Low-Grade Iron Ore Fines through Beneficiation Routes
Characterization of Copper MMC Reinforced with SiC and Graphite in Equal Proportion Made by the Powder Metallurgy Route
Evaluation and Comparison of Turning Process Performance during Machining of D2 Steel Material under Two Sustainable Machining Techniques
An Investigation on Recent Trends in Metamaterial Types and its Applications
A Review on Plasma Ion Nitriding (PIN) Process
A Review on Friction and Wear Behaviors of Brake’s Friction Materials
Comparative Parabolic Rate Constant and Coating Properties of Nickel, Cobalt, Iron and Metal Oxide Based Coating: A Review
Electro-Chemical Discharge Machining- A review and Case study
Comparison Of Composite Proton Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Containing Weak Aromatic Acids
Enhancement in Electrical Properties of PEO Based Nano-Composite Gel Electrolytes
Electrical Properties of Nanocomposite Polymer Gels based on PMMA-DMA/DMC-LiCLO2 -SiO2
Effect of Donor Number of Plasticizers on Conductivity of Polymer Electrolytes Containing NH4F
PMMA Based Polymer Gel Electrolyte Containing LiCF3SO3
The growth of 2-aminopyridine barium chloride (2APBC) crystal and its optical properties are discussed. 2APBC crystal was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. FTIR analysis is effectively used for identifying the different molecular bonding and information about functional groups present in the synthesized compound. The powder sample of 2APBC crystal was used in Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD) analysis to confirm the good crystalline nature of the sample. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses of grown crystal shows the unit cell lattice parameters value α = 5.281 , β = 5.410 , γ = 14.898 Å, α =β = γ=90º and volume V= 425.638 Å3, and confirms that 2-aminopyridine barium chloride (2APBC) crystal belongs to the orthorhombic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group P212121. Defect less; good quality 2APBC crystal was subjected to linear optical study. UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy study of the grown 2APBC crystal shows good transparency in the entire UV-vis-NIR region with lower cutoff wavelength 383 nm. Optical energy band gap (Eg) was calculated using UV spectrum data. Thermal behaviour of 2APBC sample was carried out using TGA and DTA analysis. The non-linear optical efficiency such as second harmonic generation was measured for 2APBC crystal and the result is compared with known inorganic reference material KDP. The dielectric constant is high at lower frequencies and decreases with increase in frequency trend were observed in dielectric polarization study. Hardness values of the grown crystal were estimated by Vickers's microhardness test.
Global Warming and energy crisis are the major problems of today's world. So, the uses of thermoelectric devices are very demanding. The materials used in thermoelectric devices to generate electricity from waste heat emitted by vehicles, industries are known as thermoelectric materials. But unfortunately a small part of waste heat is used for the generation of electricity and rest part is lost as waste heat due to low efficient TE devices. So, it's a challenging task for researchers to develop new thermoelectric materials with high efficiency. On review basis telluride based alloys are known to be best thermoelectric materials. Efficiency of TE devices depends on a dimensionless quantity termed as Figure of merit (ZT) of a material which indicates the ability of producing electricity from waste heat. Greater is the value of ZT indicates highly efficient device and larger the production of electricity. So, present work uses the strategies to enhance the efficiency of thermoelectric materials by fabricating super lattice structures of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 compounds and by doping with Se in these compounds may increase the value of ZT. So, finally it can be concluded that present experimental work explores the improved thermoelectric properties of these materials with many future aspects & applications.
This paper reported a rare earth Holmium (Ho) doped copper indium sulphide CuInS2 (CIS) thin film grown by using very economical chemical bath deposition method. Bath temperature was kept constant at 80oC. The main aim of this work is to synthesize a good photosensitive semiconducting film which can be used in photovoltaic devices like solar cells. The SEM images shows that the synthesized film is uniform, densely packed with cubic like grains. X-ray diffractogram confirms chalcopyrite and wurtzite phase of CuInS2. Absorption peaks are blue shifted which is due to decrease in particle size. EDAX shows that synthesized film is non-stoichiometric and confirms the doping of Ho. It is found that initially transmittance is low in UV region but increases in visible region. Higher transmittance of 90% is obtained between 540-620nm. Thus this film can be used in solar cells. Reflectance is low in the synthesized film showing that the film is anti reflection substance. The Ho doped film possesses larger band gap of 2.2 eV as compare to bulk film of CuInS2 which is due to reduced particle size. Refractive index and extinction coefficient calculated in this film are 1.79 and 0.03 respectively. Ho doped CuInS2 film is quite good photosensitive material. A strong emission peak is obtained at a wavelength of 630 nm in the IR region. The photoconductive gain calculated for the sample is ~2.6×104,which is quite good.
Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by sol–gel spin coating technique using titanium (IV) propoxide as a precursor. The spin coated films were annealed at 550oC for 4h. Influence of the precursor concentration on the structural, optical properties, and photocatlyic activity of the TiO2 thin films was also studied. The Grazing Incidence X-ray diffractometer and UV-VIS spectrophotometer were used to determine the structural and optical properties of the TiO2 thin films. The GIXRD results showed the formation of anatase TiO2 phase with crystallite size in the range of 17.6-22.4 nm. The optical transmittance spectra reveals that the film exhibits highly transparent character in the visible region, and band edge shifts towards lower wavelength side with increase in precursor concentration. The optical band gap energy values of the films shift towards the higher energy as a consequence of the precursor concentration. The photodegradation efficiencies typically decrease with an increase in precursor concentration excluding 0.2 M for the degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation.
The lead halo borate glasses with composition xPbBr2 - (30−x)PbO - 68B2O3- 2V2O5 (where 5 ≤ x ≤ 25 mol%) were prepared by using melt quenching technique. Physical and optical properties were investigated with increasing PbBr2 content. Using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), amorphous nature of glass samples is confirmed. Archimedes principle is used to determine the density of the glass samples. When oxygen ions are replaced by bromine ions the density is found to decrease. The ionic radii of bromide ions played an important role in explaining the physical properties like density and molar volume. Optical band gap and Urbach energy values were evaluated from optical absorption spectra. Using these values refractive index, molar refraction and molar electronic polarisability were determined. FTIR analysis was employed to explore the impact of lead bromide on the structure of lead borate glasses.
For successful employment of natural fiber reinforced composites in structural applications, it becomes necessary to design them in such a fashion that they retards flame propagation and moisture sorption. In this context, an experimental study has been carried out to analyze the effect of layering pattern on flammability and moisture sorption of hybrid biocomposites. The different layered hybrid composite boards [pineapple/coir/pineapple (PCP), coir/pineapple/coir (CPC), bilayer (P/C), and Intimately Mixed (IM)] were developed by hand lay-up technique, keeping the volume ratio of pineapple and coir 1:1 and total fiber to matrix region ratio 40:60. In order to characterize the flammability and hydrophilicity of developed materials, the UL-94V, UL-94HB, flame penetration, and water absorption tests were carried out as per ASTM standard. The experimental results demonstrate that the CPC hybrid composite has higher resistance to burning and penetration of water molecules as compared to the other patterns. In comparison with PCP and Bilayer (P/C) composites, the intimately mixed hybrid material exhibits a lower rate of burning and total mass loss. Moreover, the Intimately Mixed (IM) hybrid composite absorbs 44.32% and 34.87% less water than that of PCP and Bilayer (P/C) composites respectively.