i-manager's Journal on Educational Psychology (JPSY)


Volume 13 Issue 2 August - October 2019

Research Paper

A Design for Comparing CTT and IRT in Test Assembly, Scoring, and Argumentation: Differences Among Reliability, Information, and Validation

Abdulelah Mohammed Alqarni*
Department of Psychology and Counselling, Faculty of Educational Graduate Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Alqarni, A. M. (2019). A Design for Comparing CTT and IRT in Test Assembly, Scoring, and Argumentation: Differences Among Reliability, Information, and Validation. i-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 13(2), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.26634/jpsy.13.2.16084

Abstract

This study compared the psychometric properties of reliability in Classical Test Theory (CTT), item information in Item Response (IRT), and validation from the perspective of modern validity theory for the purpose of bringing attention to potential issues that might exist when testing organizations use both test theories in the same testing administration. It was found that reliability, instead using corrected item-total test score correlations, and item information functions are only grossly similar and their conjoint use should be compartmentalized in the processes of test assembly, pre-testing, and scoring broadly speaking. For validity, only minor differences attributable to scoring processes are conceivable, but the main problem is that too much subjectivity by way of different arguments being constructed using the same test and test scores engenders a lack of consensus in the meaning of arguments. A checklist is presented for consideration by test validators that will produce greater consensus of arguments by improving argument comprehensiveness.

Research Paper

The Effects of Gender Roles and Perceived Parental Attitudes on Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy of Faculty of Sport Sciences Students

Serdar Sucan*
Department of Physical Education and Sport Teaching, Sport Sciences Faculty, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.
Sucan, S. (2019). The Effects of Gender Roles and Perceived Parental Attitudes on Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy of Faculty of Sport Sciences Students. i-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 13(2), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.26634/jpsy.13.2.16518

Abstract

In this study, the effect of gender roles and perceived parental attitudes on career decision-making self-efficacy levels of university students was investigated. In addition, students' self-efficacy levels were evaluated according to gender, age, department, and class variables. A total of 248 students from different departments of Erciyes University Faculty of Sport Sciences participated in the study. Participants were administered the Gender Roles Scale (GRAS), Perceived Parental Attitudes Scale (PPAS), and Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CMSS). Mann Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis test, Post Hoc test, Correlation analysis, and Hierarchical Regression analysis were used for the data. According to the results the study, gender roles and perceived parental attitudes of students had an effect on self-efficacy of career decision making. CMSS scores did not differ according to gender and grade, but differed by age and department. The fact that teachers have an egalitarian gender role can enable their students to have an egalitarian attitude. Therefore, it can be said that students should gain parental support in order to gain an egalitarian perspective on gender roles and guidance studies should be emphasized in order to develop their own thoughts, behaviors, and attitudes.

Research Paper

How Do Atheist, Christian and Muslim Elite Athletes Motivate Themselves before Competitions?

Emre Ozan Tingaz *
Department of Physical Education and Sport Teaching, Sport Sciences Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara and Department of Psychology, Institute of Social Sciences, Cag University, Mersin, Turkey.
Tingaz, E. O. (2019). How Do Atheist, Christian and Muslim Elite Athletes Motivate Themselves before Competitions? i-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 13(2), 20-28. https://doi.org/10.26634/jpsy.13.2.15754

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to examine how Atheist, Christian, and Muslim elite athletes motivate themselves before competitions. Using a semi-structured format qualitative design, seventeen elite male volleyball players were interviewed. For Muslim athletes, the focus was on “Praying” with the highest frequency, while for Christian athletes the “Visualization” had the highest frequency. For Atheist athletes, “Winning the Game” was the highest frequency. Muslim, Christian, and Atheist athletes had similar motivation focus point as; “Want to Do the Best”. When we compared the Muslim and Christian athletes, “Stay Alone” and “Want to Do the Best” were common motivation styles for them. They prefered to stay alone because of some reasons such as; suppress excitement, imagine, and relaxing. There was no similar expression between Muslim and Atheist athletes. “Desire to Win” and “Listen to Music” were common expressions for Christian and Atheist athletes.

Research Paper

Cognitive Development of Children in Relation to Inhibition Control, Working Memory, and Cognitive Flexibility

Ananta Kumar Jena* , Joy Das**, Satarupa Bhattacharjee***, Somnath Gupta****, Munmi Barman*****, Jaishree Devi******, Rajib Debnath*******
*, ***, *****_*******Department of Education at Assam University, Silchar, India.
**Department of Teacher Education, Holy Cross College, Agartala, Tripura, India.
****Department of Life Science & Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar, India.
Jena, A. K., Das, J., Bhattacharjee, S., Gupta, S., Barman, M., Devi, J., & Debnath, R. (2019). Cognitive Development of Children in Relation to Inhibition Control, Working Memory, and Cognitive Flexibility. i-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 13(2), 29-48. https://doi.org/10.26634/jpsy.13.2.16100

Abstract

The study assessed the relationship among the factors of inhibition control, working memory and cognitive flexibility in relation to cognitive development of children. Total 30 children (17 male and 13 female) age group 6-7 years old (Mean =6.5 ; SD = 0.34) participated in the study. In this study, we used Stroop Task, saccadic test, and Simon Task Flanker Task to assess the inhibitory control. In addition, Working Memory Tasks, Cognitive Flexibility Tasks, and Cognitive Development scale assessed working memory, cognitive flexibility and cognitive development. It resulted that processing speed, selective attention, and automaticity factors of inhibitory control has significant relationship with cognitive development of children. Moreover, the timing and kinematics factors of inhibitory control assessed by Saccadic Task, found significant relationship with cognitive development. Not only was that but also the tendency to respond the stimulus has also significant relation with cognitive development that was assessed by Simon Task. Children's detection and recognition of target factor of inhibitory control was assessed by Flankar Task found significant relationship with cognitive development. As a whole processing speed, selective attention, automaticity, timing and kinematics, and tendency to response the stimulus factors were hierarchical related with cognitive development of elementary children.

Review Paper

Comprehensive Review on Academic Achievement Levels through M-Learning

Anjay Lakhan * , Kumar Laxman**
*South Auckland School, New Zealand.
** Faculty of Education, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Lakhan, A., & Laxman, K. (2019). Comprehensive Review on Academic Achievement Levels through M-Learning. i-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 13(2), 49-58. https://doi.org/10.26634/jpsy.13.2.15535

Abstract

Mobile learning is getting very popular in this 21st century due to advanced digital technology. Students' in the present day are growing up in a society which is immensely different compared to their teachers. Many educators are struggling to keep up with the modern evolution and there is a need to change teacher beliefs. This study, investigated how students' can benefit if mobile hand held technology is incorporated into their learning. The study further investigates how low socio economic students' manage this technological evolution. Peer reviewed journals were analysed to find out how mobile digital technology is improving students' academic achievement level in different parts of the world. This study looked at many peer reviewed journals, but 18 were chosen to be analysed. The journals releveled that incorporation of these technology into lessons improve student motivation, improves academic achievement, improves engagement, builds student – teacher relationship, technology is very easy to use, students' feel comfortable, enhances peer engagement and social media can be beneficial to education. On the other hand, journals also reveal that teacher beliefs needs to be changed, more professional development is needed for teachers, schools are restricting many useful websites as they are fearful, can bring digital divide, can be disruptive to students' and low socio economic students' can be left out. There is an urgent need to involve this technology into lessons as for many students' using these handheld mobile devices has become a daily part of life. Many parents also believe that these devices can help their children achieve improved academic results. Mobile learning motivates and improves student academic achievement level, however many schools around the world do not give students' full access to internet during school hours and many also ban some useful websites which can be very beneficial to student learning.