i-manager's Journal on Life Sciences (JLS)


Volume 1 Issue 1 October - December 2019

Research Paper

Susceptibility of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria to Lyophilized Citrus Limon Juice Extract

Adabara N. U. * , Abubakar I. **, Adedeji A. S. ***, Kuta F. A.****, Bala J. D. *****, Oyedum U. M. ******
*-****** Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
Adabara N. U., Abubakar, I., Adedeji, A. S., Kuta, F. A., Bala J. D., and Oyedum U. M. (2019). Susceptibility of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria to Lyophilized Citrus Limon Juice Extract. i-manager's Journal on Life Sciences, 1(1), 1-7.

Abstract

This research was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activity of lyophilized Citrus limon on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Macrococcus luteus and Clostridium difficile. Phytochemical constituent of the lyophilized citrus limon was determined using standard laboratory methods, while the agar well diffusion technique was used to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the lyophilized extract. Phytochemistry of the lyophilized Citrus limon extract revealed the presence of saponins, tannin, flavonoid, glycoside, cardiac, terpenes, anthraquinone, resins phenol, alkaloid, volatile oils and steroid. Lyophilized Citrus limon juice extract had a significant activity (p<0.05) with zone of inhibition as follows 26.00±1.4, 21.00±1.41, 24.50±0.70, 16.50±0.70, 29.50±2.12 and 20.50±0.00 mm at 40 mg/mL against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Macrococcus luteus and Clostridium difficile, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 10-80 mg/mL and the minimum bacteriocidal concentration ranges from 80-160 mg/mL. This study provides insight on the antibacterial potential of Citrus limon juice extract against multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. It is recommended that further studies should be conducted to explore the Citrus limon bioactive compound in the development of therapeutic drug.

Research Paper

Neem Root Mediated-Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Antimicrobial Activities and Application as Detergent Additive

Adelere Isiaka Adedayo* , Lateef Agbaje**, Adabara Nasiru Usman***, Babayi Hausatu****, Aboyeji David Oyeyemi *****
*,***-***** Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
** Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
Adedayo, A. I., Agbaje, L., Usman, A. N., Hausatu, B., and Oyeyemi, A. D. (2019). Neem Root Mediated-Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Antimicrobial Activities and Application as Detergent Additive. i-manager's Journal on Life Sciences, 1(1), 8-15.

Abstract

This study reports on the biosynthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of neem root. The synthesis was carried out by mixing 1mM silver nitrate with the aqueous extract of neem root (10:1) under ambient conditions. Characterization was done by UV- vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial and algicidal activities of bio-synthesized AgNPs were investigated against some clinical bacterial isolates and a bloom forming cyanobacterial strain, respectively. Their potential application as an antimicrobial detergent additive was evaluated. The bio-synthesized AgNPs displayed maximum absorbance at wavelength 425 nm. The particles are predominantly spherical in shape with size ranging from 20 to 60 nm. Data obtained from FTIR indicate that the protein molecules in extract played a very active role in the reduction of silver ions to form AgNPs. The particles demonstrated considerable antibacterial activities against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae as they induced inhibition zone of 12-23 mm. The algicidal activity displayed by the particles against the bloom forming cyanobacterial strain was appreciable. Similarly, the incorporation of AgNPs as additive in the locally made detergent led to the total inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida sp, and Aspergillus flavus. Therefore, results obtained in this study suggest the promising applications of the particles as an antimicrobial agent in the water treatment and drug development. The particles exhibited potential application as an antimicrobial additive in detergent production.

Review Paper

The Role of Stilbene Phytoalexins in the Resistance Mechanism of Grapevine Against Plasmopara Viticola

Yesim ER* , Nur Sivri**
* Istanbul Directorate of Agricultural Quarantine, Istanbul, Turkey.
** Tekirdag University of Namik Kemal, Tekirdag, Turkey.
Er, Y., and Sivri, N. (2019). The Role of Stilbene Phytoalexins in the Resistance Mechanism of Grapevine Against Plasmopara Viticola. i-manager's Journal on Life Sciences, 1(1), 16-24.

Abstract

Phytoalexins are low molecular weight antimicrobial compounds synthesized as a result of biotic or abiotic stress factors and are considered to be involved in the mechanism of resistance. Phytoalexins are produced by a wide range of plant species. In particular, the presence of stilbene phytoalexins in grapevine is of great importance in terms of positive contribution to human health, as well as resistance-inducing compounds. The stilbene phytoalexins are synthesized and accumulated only in grapevine tissues. Resveratrol, δ- viniferin, ε-viniferin, and pterostilbene as stilbenic compounds are effective against the vast majority of plant diseases. Stilbenes are produced in response to biotic elicitors caused by Plasmopara viticola and other pathogens in grapevine. Recent studies have suggested that the stilbene group compounds inhibit the mobility and germination of zoospores of Plasmopara viticola, one of the most common and destructive agent of grapevine diseases. In this review, we aim to discuss the inhibiting effect of stilbene phytoalexins and their quantities accumulated in grapevine against Plasmopara viticola.

Review Paper

The Perspective View about Water Hyacinth as Problem or Resource: A Review

Pankaj Kumar* , M. S. Chauhan**
* Department of Civil Engineering, Subharti Institute of Technology and Engineering, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.
** Department of Civil Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Kumar, P., and Chauhan, M. S. (2020). The Perspective View about Water Hyacinth as Problem or Resource: A Review. i-manager's Journal on Life Sciences, 1(1), 25-37.

Abstract

Water hyacinth is a well-known aquatic plant worldwide because of its incredible properties like rapid growth in a tolerated environmental condition in more than 50 countries. This has been an issue of discussion among researchers and scientists over the past few decades due to severe difficulties in irrigation, navigation, and power generation. Researchers and scientists are trying to change the perception angle regarding control of it and also show a new phase of it as a resource because of its several valuable unique qualities, which can solve many problems. As a result, lots of research work has been undertaken on its control (especially biological control) and appropriate utilization in energy production (especially biogas), water and wastewater treatment. The main objective of this review paper is to show comprehensive information about the conducted research activities and their properties, control and utilization.

Review Paper

Natural Phyto-Constituents as Leishmanicides: A Brief Review of the Most Widely Recommended Phyto Chemicals of the 21st Century and an Account of their Mode of Action

Angela Perris* , Junaid Jibran Jawed **, Subrata Majumdar***
* Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier's College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
** Department of Life Sciences, School of Biotechnology, Presidency University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
*** Department of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Perris, A., Jawed, J. J., and Majumdar, S. (2019). Natural Phyto-Constituents as Leishmanicides: A Brief Review of the Most Widely Recommended Phyto Chemicals of the 21st Century and an Account of their Mode of Action. i-manager's Journal on Life Sciences, 1(1), 38-46.

Abstract

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a deadly form of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani, is one of the most serious threats yet neglected complication and a major arena of research of the 21st century. Phyto-extracts are the major source of anti-microbial agent, responsible for killing many intracellular and extracellular microbes. These therapeutic benefits are caused by increased nitrite generation, activation of Th1 cytokine response, elevated serum chemokines and induction of reactive oxygen species. Our review highlights the important contributions of several phyto-products like artemisinin, glycyrrhizic acid, quassin, and resveratrol which have shown to be efficient against the progression and establishment of L. donovani infection. Therefore, the present study deals with a detailed account of the potentiality of immuno modulators, especially these four most widely recommended anti-leishmanial phyto-agents that gained momentum in the 21st century, including the way they carry out their mechanistic roles in parasite clearance and host healing.