i-manager's Journal on Physical Sciences (JPHY)


Volume 1 Issue 1 October - December 2019

Research Paper

Effect of TiO2 Modifier Oxide on a B2O3 Glass System

P. Naresh* , A. Chitti Babu**, L. Srinivasa Rao***, G. Nagaraju****
* Department of Physics, Velagapudi Ramakrishna Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India.
** Department of Physics, Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge and Technologies, (APIIIT), Nazvid, India.
*** Department of Physics, VNR Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
**** Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Naresh, P., Babu, A. C., Rao, L. S., and Nagaraju, G. (2019). Effect of TiO2 Modifier Oxide on a B2O3 Glass System. i-manager's Journal on Physical Sciences, 1(1), 1-7.

Abstract

In this paper, Syntherized Zinc-Barium-Borate glasses are doped with various concentration of titanium ion and are characterized by an XRD. The starting material of the glass system is ZnO-BaO-B2O3:TiO2 glasses,  which are prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. Densities are measured. Optical absorption spectra and FTIR spectra were recorded at room temperature. Optical absorption studies indicate that the titanium ions do exist in Ti3+ and Ti4+ state. As the content of TiO2 increases, Ti3+ ions acts as modifiers and these may induce NBO’s in the glass network and reduce the samll portion of Ti4+ ions to Ti3+ ions. The IR spectral studies indicate that the structure of these glasses consist of BO3 and BO4 groups randomly connected with linkages B-O-B, Zn-O-Zn, B-O-Zn. Finally, the structural changes in the host glass are analyzed with a small variation in the TiOconcentration. From the results, it can be concluded that the effects of Ti3+ ions in lead borate glasses is dominated by Ti4+ ions.

Research Paper

Erbium Rare-Earth Metal Schottky Contact to P-Type Si and its Temperature-Dependent Current-Voltage Characteristics

M. Bhaskar Reddy* , K. Venkata Subba Reddy **
* Govermenment Degree College, Nagari, Andhra Pradesh, India.
** SBVR Degree College, Badvel, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Reddy, M. B., and Reddy, K. V. S. (2019). Erbium Rare-Earth Metal Schottky Contact to P-Type Si and its Temperature-Dependent Current-Voltage Characteristics. i-manager's Journal on Physical Sciences, 1(1), 8-15.

Abstract

A temperature dependent current-voltage characterization of the Er/p-type Si Schottky diode has been carried out in the temperature range of 200–425 K. The diode exhibited a good rectification behavior with a rectification rate of 7.7×105 at room temperature. The Schottky barrier parameters of Er/p-type Si Schottky diode, such as barrier height and ideality factor showed strong temperature dependence. The barrier height and ideality factor decreased and increased, respectively, with decrease in temperature, indicating that the current transport mechanism in Er/p-Si Schottky diode is other than thermionic emission. This behavior of barrier height and ideality factor with the temperature is associated with the existence of the barrier in homogeneity at the metal-semiconductor interface. The barrier inhomogeneities interpreted under the assumption of Gaussian distribution indicated the presence of a double barrier distribution with a transition occurring at 300 K. The Richardson plot interpreted with the Gaussian distribution approach yields a Richardson constant of 17.1 Acm-2 K-2 in the high temperature region that closely matched with the theoretical value of 32 Acm-2 K-2 for p-type Si.

Research Paper

Investigation of Temperature Sensitive Electrical Properties of Manganese-Zinc Ferrites

S. N. Patil * , B. P. Ladgaonkar **, S. K. Tilekar ***, D. Deshpande ****, A. M. Pawar *****
*,****-***** Department of Electronics, Tuljaram Chaturchand College, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
**-*** Department of Electronics, Shankarrao Mohite Mahavidyalaya, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.
Patil, S. N., Ladgaonkar, B. P., Tilekar, S. K., Deshpande, D., and Pawar, A. M. (2019). Investigation of Temperature Sensitive Electrical Properties of Manganese-Zinc Ferrites. i-manager's Journal on Physical Sciences, 1(1), 16-23.

Abstract

Keeping pace with facets of nanotechnology and its applications in the field of development of smart instrumentation to cater today’s needs and future requirements of various sectors, sensor is the key portion of the measurement system, which responds directly to the physical variables that need to be measured. Therefore, one should opt for proper sensor of better characteristics, nanoparticle spinel Manganese-Zinc ferrites have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. The formation of the materials is confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and FTIR absorption technology. The results of X-ray diffraction investigation confirm the formation of a single phase composition with the average particle size from 40 nm to 48 nm. Temperature dependent electrical properties of the compositions of MgxZn1-xFe2O4 nano ferrites were investigated for suitability of these materials as a sensing element for designing of sensors. The sensors developed, are employing thick film technology. Measure the DC electrical resistivity of the pelletized compositions and shows the semiconducting behavior, which is attributed to the electron hopping mechanism. This electrical conductivity exhibits the influence of magnetic ordering at curie temperature. The curie temperature values depict the compositional dependence. The electrical resistivity shows a negative temperature coefficient with temperature, hence the materials could be used to design temperature sensors. The results of implementation are interpreted in this paper.

Research Paper

Synthesis, Structural Characterization and DC Conductivity Study of (PMMA+PEG) Polymer Blend Films

Kiran Kumar Ganta* , E. Laxmi Narsaiah**, K. Vijaya Kumar***
*-** Department of Physics, B V Raju Institute of Technology, Narsapur, Medak, Telangana, India.
*** Department of Physics, JNTUH College of Engineering Sultanpur, Pulkal, Sangareddy, Telangana, India.
Ganta, K. K., Narsaiah, E. L., and Kumar, K. V. (2019). Synthesis, Structural Characterization and DC Conductivity Study of (PMMA+PEG) Polymer Blend Films. i-manager's Journal on Physical Sciences, 1(1), 24-29.

Abstract

The films of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA), Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) and a blend of these two polymers (PMMA and PEG) have been prepared by using well known solution casting method. The complexation of the prepared polymer blend films have been confirmed by recording the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectra in these samples. Sharp peaks of the XRD patterns appear at 21.80 and 23.40, which indicate that the PEG was completely crystallized during the polymerization process. The humps around 14.20, attributed to the poorly crystallized PMMA. The surface morphology was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The FTIR spectra of polymer blend (PMMA+PEG) showed several changes in the absorption band positions compared to pure PMMA. As a result, the FTIR analysis confirmed the constitution of both the blend components and the possible interaction between the components. The DSC studies indicate the melting temperature (Tm) and heat flow. The pure PMMA has a broad melting temperature around 152 0C. the melting temperatures (Tm) of PMMA+PEG blend films with different ratios are observed to decrease when compared to pure PMMA. The temperature dependence ionic conductivity follows the Arrhenius rule in the temperature range of 303 to 373 K. DC conductivity studies have shown 3.16X10-4 S/cm for the blend of PMMA+PEG (60:40) at 100 0C.

Research Paper

Study of Moderate Temperature Plasma Nitriding of Inconel 601 Alloy

Yogesh Chandra Sharma * , Ravindra Kumar**
* Department of Physics, Vivekananda Global University, Jaipur, India.
** Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Jaipur, India.
Sharma, Y. C., and Kumar, R. (2019). Study of Moderate Temperature Plasma Nitriding of Inconel 601 Alloy. i-manager's Journal on Physical Sciences, 1(1), 30-38.

Abstract

Inconel alloys are the widely used material in nuclear and aerospace industries due to its superior chemical and thermal properties. However, super alloys Inconel 601 is still less studied in terms of plasma nitriding at moderate temperature. Hence, the current study reports plasma ion nitriding of Inconel 601 alloys in the low temperature regime. The plasma nitriding was done at temperature approximately from 350 0C to 450 0C. Development of nitrided layer and its microstructure study was done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRD was done by lab machine (Panalytical X'Pert Pro) using the X-ray source of Cu-Kα radiation (1.54 Å). To analyze the effect of plasma nitriding on surface properties of the alloy, Micro-hardness Measurement and Wear Test (pin on disk) were performed. It was concluded that nitriding process enhances the hardness of the surface. The XRD measurement concluded that it was happened due to the formation of Chromium Nitride (CrN), and epsilon (ε) phase on the nitrided surface.

Research Paper

A Detailed Experimental Study on Amorphous Fe80-XGd XB20(0<X≤6) Alloys

B. Bhanu Prasad *
Department of Sciences & Humanities, M.V.S.R. Engineering College, Nadergul, Hyderabad, India.
Prasad, B. B. (2019). A Detailed Experimental Study on Amorphous Fe80-XGd XB20(0<X≤6) Alloys. i-manager's Journal on Physical Sciences, 1(1), 39-43.

Abstract

An experimental study has been done on amorphous Fe78Gd2B20 (S1), Fe76Gd4B20 (S2), and Fe74Gd6B20 (S3) alloys to understand their electrical, phase transformation, and magnetic properties. Four Probe Technique (FPT), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Vibration Sample Magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the samples. Resistance versus temperature curve of the fresh sample Fe78Gd2B20 (S1) showed a sudden drop around 800 K, indicating the amorphous for crystalline transformation of the sample. The resistivity of samples S1, S2, and S3 at room temperature was found to be 273.3 µΩ-cm, 242.1 µΩ-cm and 147 µΩ-cm, respectively. Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) of the samples S1, S2 and S3 was found to be 1.38 x 10-4 K-1,1.40 x 10-4 K-1 and 2.60 x10-4 K-1, respectively. The phase transformation and structural studies have been done using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range of 30 0C – 1000 0C. The DSC curve of sample S1 showed an exothermic sharp peak around 555 0C (828 K), indicating the amorphous to crystalline transformation. Thus, sample S1 showed single step crystallization. Samples S2, and S3 showed multi step (growth of different phases) crystallization. XRD studies showed the presence of α-Fe phase in the crystallized S1 sample. From VSM studies, the coercive field (H ) of the samples S1, S2, and S3 was found to be 0.00 Oe', 0.10 Oe', 1.69 Oe and the saturation magnetization (M ) was found to be 4.911 emu, 0.897 emu, 0.679 emu, respectively.