i-manager's Journal on Nursing (JNUR)


Volume 9 Issue 3 August - October 2019

Article

Modes of Attempting, Preventing and Managing Self Harm and Suicide in Context of Pakistan

Sarmad Muhammad Soomar* , Shumaila Khadim Ali**, Anmol Minaz***
* Department of Psychiatry, Aga Khan University Karachi, Pakistan.
** Aga Khan University School of Nursing & Midwifery Karachi, Pakistan.
*** Aga Khan Hospital Karachi, Pakistan.
Soomar, S. M., Ali, S. K., Minaz, A. (2019). Modes of Attempting, Preventing and Managing Self Harm and Suicide in Context of Pakistan, i-manager's Journal on Nursing, 9(3), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.26634/jnur.9.3.16526

Abstract

Suicide has now become a global concern. It could be commonly a self-harm attempt or completed suicide as well. It is increasing day by day at an alarming rate. Researches have been undertaken very seriously around the globe to identify the common modes of suicide among people who attempt it. Also, connection with various factors such as the demographics of gender and age group is very necessary to identify. This will connect with the common reasons why people make suicide attempts. Immediate interventions are identified to save people from this sort of fatal and harming behavior. The thoughts and feelings of being worthless bring people towards suicide mostly. Acute conditions like failure in exams and relationship issues can also lead to thoughts of suicide. This usually emerges when people are unable to overcome or cope with ongoing challenges in life or any particular incidences. These challenges could be marital issues, mental health problems, academic issues, unemployment, or when people fail to achieve their goals. When people find it difficult to face all of the hurdles and unable to achieve what they actually want, then suicide or self-harm become one option for them to either kill or hurt themselves. Healthcare providers have an active role to understand what modes of suicide are commonly used or approached so that they can strengthen their learning and practice, both in terms of preventing and managing suicide. Healthcare providers, especially nurses, play roles of advocate and educator to bring families, friends, and other caregivers into close loop so that these incidences can be managed and prevented at home and outside hospitals as well.

Research Paper

Living in Darkness and Lightness: Experiences of Thalassemia Patients and their Caregivers in South East Iran

Batool Pouraboli*
* Department of Pediatric and neonatal nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Pouraboli, B. (2019). Living in darkness and lightness: experiences of Thalassemia patients and their caregivers in South East Iran,i-manager's Journal on Nursing, 9(3), 8-17. https://doi.org/10.26634/jnur.9.3.16404

Abstract

Disease concealment and disclosure is one of the most complex challenges of thalassemia patients and it has a close relationship with stigma and leads to fear, anxiety, and negative reactions of others. The key of effective care and treatment of patients is to identify concealment experience resulted from illness-related stigma, disclosure and designing effective interventions. The present study aims to explore experience of thalassemia patients and their caregivers from illness concealment due to the stigma related to it and illness disclosure. This qualitative study done with content analysis approach, 21 participants were chosen by purposive sampling. The research was completed in medical center of Samen Alhojaj in Kerman in 2012-2014. Data were gathered by non-structural interviews using open questions and data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with a conventional approach. The main category obtained in this study is living in darkness and lightness and it includes subcategories of A: concealment and B: disclosure. Feelings perceived by patients from thalassemia stigma suggest this fact that such patients not only involve with unpleasant mental and physical outcomes of the illness, but also they face with illness concealment resulting from social stigma of the illness such that their physical and spiritual health is addressed. Therefore, concerning the results of this study, it is necessary to study illness concealment and disclosure and to formulate educational programs for all people in the society and relatives of the patient.

Research Paper

Knowledge and Practices of Family Planning (FP) Methods among Women Living in Semi-Urban Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

Fatima Ali Jawad* , Sanam Soomro**, Saher Aijaz***, Tazeen Saeed Ali****
*,***-**** School of Nursing and Midwifery, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
** Institute of Health Management, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.
Jawad, F., Soomro, S., Aijaz, S., Ali, T.S.(2019). Knowledge and Practices of Family Planning (FP) Methods Among Women Living in Semi-Urban Areas of Karachi, Pakistan, i-manager's Journal on Nursing, 9(3), 18-26. https://doi.org/10.26634/jnur.9.3.16378

Abstract

This research aimed to identify the basic information regarding the knowledge and practices of Family Planning (FP) methods among women living in semi urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan and to derive conclusions from the research to provide necessary recommendations and suggestions, which the family planning services in Pakistan can implement. The authors have used a cross-sectional design. This study also used purposive sampling for the selection of the participants. The developed questionnaire was pre-tested on a small portion of the population, approximately 10-15% of the total sample size. SPSS was used to interpret the data findings. The results revealed that only the factor “number of children” had a significant association with the family planning user (<0.05). For the knowledge of family planning methods with their users: satisfaction with contraceptive's effectiveness, satisfaction with contraceptive's cost, and getting awareness from family planning centers has shown to be significantly (< 0.05) associated with the family planning users. For practices; effective family planning methods, availability of contraceptives, and the cost effectiveness of methods were found highly significant with the family planning users (<0.001). Whereas, knowledge about the uses of contraceptives other than birth control was found to be independent of family planning users (>0.05). In contrast, age group, education, employment status, type of family are highly insignificant in the results (>0.05). Knowledge and continuous practices on family planning methods for women have an enormous impact on the Family Planning process. Hence, it is important to view the impact through active participation of community Healthcare Centers and services offered by them, with an increase in the resources provided such as contraceptives. Additionally, healthcare professionals need to be involved in awareness sessions. The approach is to move ahead, and that can be achieved only by involving men in family planning practices to create promotions of empowerment for women, rather than dependencies.

Research Paper

The Relationship between Self-efficacy and Performance of Breast Self-Examination among Nurses: A survey in Southeast of Iran

Tayebeh Eghbali* , Mahlegh Dehghan**, Roghayeh Mehdipur Rabori***, Calista Roy****, Mansoureh Azzizadeh Forouzi*****
* Shahfa Hospital of Kerman Medical University, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
** Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
***,***** Nursing Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran.
**** Mount Saint Mary’s University Los Angeles, CA, United States.
Eghbali, T., Dehghan, M., Rabori, R. M., Roy, C., Forouzi, M.A.(2019). The Relationship between Self-efficacy and Performance of Breast Self-Examination among Nurses: A survey in Southeast of Iran, i-manager's Journal on Nursing, 9(3), 27-37. https://doi.org/10.26634/jnur.9.3.16556

Abstract

Breast self-examination is a relatively simple, non-invasive, and inexpensive method for early diagnosis of breast cancer. It is believed that the perceived self-efficacy of women is one of the most important factors in breast self-examination and, therefore, early diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between self-efficacy and performance of breast self-examination among nursing staff in hospitals supervised by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Two hundred female nurses participated in this descriptive-correlational study. Data were collected by three questionnaires, including, background information, self-efficacy of breast self-examination, and performance of breast self-examination. The total mean scores of performance and self-efficacy of breast self-examination were 12.88 (SD=2.35) (more than the median score) and 55.92 (SD=12.12) (Less than the median score), respectively. There was a significant relationship between performance and self-efficacy of breast self-examination (r = 0.71). Accordingly, by increasing self-efficacy, the level of breast self-examination performance increased. According to the results of this study, increasing self-efficacy of breast self-examination has a significant effect on improving breast self-examination performance in nursing staff. Therefore, it is recommended to develop training programs and specific strategies to increase self-efficacy in breast self-examination.

Review Paper

Sex Health Education: A Cultural Taboo in Pakistan

Kiran Karim Jivani* , Anmol Minaz **
* Department of Gastroenterology and General Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
**Department of Nursing Education Service, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
Jivani, K. K., Minaz, A. (2019). Sex Health Education: A Cultural Taboo in Pakistan,i-manager's Journal on Nursing, 9(3), 38-41. https://doi.org/10.26634/jnur.9.3.16471

Abstract

The meaning of Sex health education is the instructions on the overall aspect of human sexuality, but in Pakistan it has always been considered immoral. A research survey for aged 16-25 years, reported; 25.3% have never been taught about any kind of sexual health education, 32.7% don’t have desired gender professionals to communicate with, and 42% have secondary source of information including internet, parents, and telephone helplines. According to DSM-V, sexual and gender disorders have a marked link with no or low sex health education. Psychoanalytic sexual drive theory by Freud explains that due to lack of awareness or inaccurate exposure about sexual concerns they lead to fixation. At a National level, we must introduce sexual health education as a separate subject in schools. Secondly, citizens and government need to join together to launch sexual health awareness campaigns. Furthermore, at community level, a conducive environment must be provided. In conclusion, Sex health education is viewed as discomforting subject in Pakistani Community and it is our responsibility to equip youth and adults with well informed views and inspiring positive behavioral changes.

Review Paper

Perception of Pain: A Spectrum of Aspects

Armish Hussain* , Kausar Karim **
* Department of Cardiology, North West clinic, United Arab Emirates.
**Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan.
Hussain, A., Karim, K. (2019). Perception of Pain: A Spectrum of Aspects, i-manager's Journal on Nursing, 9(3), 42-47. https://doi.org/10.26634/jnur.9.3.16360

Abstract

This paper explores the perception of pain in an individual concerning diverse aspects. As pain is the most common reason for seeking medical attention, the therapist needs to be familiar with the factors that influence pain perception and treatment approaches. The factors discussed in this paper are sociocultural, behavioral, psychological, gender, religion, personality, age, coping, and genetics. In former literature, the pain was only considered to take a physiological form, however, was later revealed to also have psychological factors which could also have an impact on pain perception. Many theories and models supported this idea, one of which was proposed by Skevington in 1995. Hence, healthcare providers must approach a client holistically considering all the factors.