Creep of Concrete Incorporated with Marble Powder
Evaluation of Probability Distributions for Estimation of Peak Flood Discharge using FFA Approach
Experimental Investigation on Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate with Ceramic Powder
Transportation Planning using Activity-Based Travel Demand Model
Fatigue Life Prediction of Concrete Bridges using Wireless Sensors - A Review
Estimating the Soil Moisture Index using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) And Land Surface Temperature (LST) for Bidar and Kalaburagi District, Karnataka
Roughness Evaluation of Flexible Pavements Using Merlin and Total Station Equipment
Site Suitability Analysis for Solid Waste Dumping in Ranchi City, Jharkhand Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques
Unsaturated Seepage Modeling of Lined Canal Using SEEP/W
Strengthening and Rehabilitation of RC Beams with Openings Using CFRP
A Seasonal Autoregressive Model Of Vancouver Bicycle Traffic Using Weather Variables
Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete by Data-Driven Models
Predicting the 28 Days Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Artificial Neural Network
Measuring Compressive Strength of Puzzolan Concrete by Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method
Design and Analysis of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavements for Low Volume Roads in India
Prestressed concrete and steel concrete composite are commonly used for constructing bridges. Construction of prestressed concrete bridge is time taking and less reliable. Steel concrete composite bridges have problem of excessive deflection under dead and super imposed loads, live load and deflection due to shrinkage and creep of deck slab concrete. External post-tensioning for strengthening of existing bridges has been used in many countries and has been found to provide an efficient and economic solution for a wide range of bridge types and conditions. External prestressing is now being used for construction of new bridges also. The paper introduces a new concept of prestressed steel-concrete composite bridge, in which external post-tensioning is used in the steel-concrete composite bridge. In the prestressed steel-concrete composite bridge, high tensile wires are tensioned by means of jacks bearing on the end block of the concrete deck slab and anchored. As a result, longitudinal stress level of the concrete deck slab is raised, which not only eliminates shrinkage and creep strains but also improves its fatigue performance. 40.0m and 72.0m spans, un-supported and supported during construction composite and prestressed composite bridges have been considered for the comparison. It is concluded that prestressing not only raises stress level of the deck slab concrete improving its fatigue performance, but it also improves strength and stiffness of the bridge considerably. Further, it is concluded that prestressed steel-concrete composite bridges need not be supported during construction as the deflections under dead load and imposed load are eliminated using prestress. This is highly desirable for longer spans. For example, prestressed steel-concrete composite bridges can be used for longer span up to 80m in comparison to prestressed concrete bridges and steel concrete composite bridges, which can be constructed up to 40m span only.
The current study has been done using space based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite data to estimate the snow wetness and snow density in Manali watershed of Beas River, Himachal Pradesh, India. SAR data used is dual co-polarized (HH/VV) data of Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT), Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)-Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data. SAR based inversion models were implemented in Mathematica and MATLAB, and has been used for finding wet and dry snow dielectric constant, snow wetness and snow density. Maps of forest cover, layover and shadow were used to mask these areas in snow parameter estimation. Overall accuracy in terms of R2 value comes out to be 0.86 for snow wetness and, 0.85 for snow density based on ground truth data for subset area of Manali sub-basin of Beas river upto Manali.
Studies carried out on fifteen water samples of the Suran river from Bonikhet to Surankot, Poonch district, Jammu Himalaya in respect of Si4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2 and Pb2+ reveal Fe2+, Mn2+ and Si4+ concentration above permissible limits and hence toxic for human consumption. However, no element among the chemically analysed was found harmful as far as agriculture is concerned. Turbidity values of Suran river water were found higher because of higher index of erosion in the watershed areas of Suran river. The different parameters for water, with respect to agricultural use namely: SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio), SSP (Sodium Soluble Percentage), RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate), MR (Magnesium Ratio), CR (Corrosivity Ratio), EC (Electrical Conductivity), TDS (Total Dissolved Salts), TH (Total Hardness as CaCO3 are found all below permissible levels. TDS values are found < 500 ppm and hence suitable for domestic use.
Most of the geotechnical projects focus on assessing the existing ground and rock conditions. On some project, the soil condition may be poor, so we may have to consider the methods for soil improvement. Presently used techniques for ground improvement are removal and replacement of weak soils; grouting the weak soil, vibrocompactions, dynamic compaction, blast densification; insitu replacement of weak soils, stabilisation using admixtures, concrete soil reinforcement and use of geosynthetics such as geotextiles, geogrids, geowebs, etc. But these methods may be either expensive or time consuming. These may also prove a hazard to the environment. This is a serious problem experienced by the civil engineers. To overcome this problem, we introduce the use of waste plastic materials for soil improvement. These can perform five primary functions such as separation between different layers, reinforcement, fluid barriers, protection of geosynthetics, erosion control. This technique is found to be simple, cost effective and does not require any special equipment. Also, helps to save our environment, as disposal of plastics is a problem creating environmental hazard.
Floods have the greatest damage potential of all natural disasters worldwide and affect the largest number of people. Plans and efforts must be undertaken to move from post-disaster response to disaster mitigation. More than ever, there is the need for decision makers to adopt holistic approaches for flood disaster mitigation and management. It is recognized that comprehensive assessments of risks from natural hazards, are needed. Assessment of risk and the involvement of the community in the decision making, planning and implementation process can help to obtain sustainable solutions. Solutions must reflect the human dimension and must also consider the impacts of changing land use on flooding, erosion, and landslides. Implementation will only be sustainable if solutions are suitable for the community at risk, over the long term. Different country uses different policies and methods for minimizing vulnerabilities and adverse impacts of hazards to facilitate sustainable development. In this paper, the high risk and socio-economical loss due to flood is discussed. Various concepts and methods are presented by different researchers to mitigate the effect of floods. Remote Sensing, GIS, Google Earth and various new software and technologies are being used for flood forecasting and flood risk analysis. A brief review of few methods is presented in this paper. After a critical analysis it can be concluded that a highly integrated system is required for forecasting the floods. It should integrate geo-morphological, hydrological, meteorological, and socioeconomic aspects to provide more accurate and effective results for decision making. It requires coordination across many agencies at national to community levels for the system to work. Therefore it is clear that efficient disaster mitigation system is rigorously required to minimize the social and financial loss. In current scenario various new technologies and equipments are used to forecast and mitigate the disaster effects.