i-manager's Journal on Economics & Commerce (JECOM)


Volume 1 Issue 2 January - June 2020

Article

The Role of International Trade in the Globalized World

Mboungou Mouyabi Seke*
Department of Business Intelligence and Services, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Seke, M. M. (2020). The Role of International Trade in the Globalized World. i-manager's Journal on Economics & Commerce, 1(2), 1-8.

Abstract

The role of international trade in the globalized world has been the consequence of many studies in various issues. It is a strategic activity exercised by a country in the development process of improving its economy. Moreover, international trade discusses primarily the exchange of goods and services across the perimeter of a country. Multinational corporations play an important role in the development of international trade, among other aspects such as globalization and outsourcing. Due to international trade, various sectors of domestic economy can change drastically. Against this plethora of competitive advantage provided by international trade, what is its role in the globalized world today? It is important, however, to clarify the lantern of readers in highlighting the difference between keywords. International trade is the main element of global integration promoted by economists and business leaders of our century. Globalized world is the growing interdependence of countries momentous from the aggregate integration of trade, finance, people, and ideas in one global marketplace.

Article

How would Indian Economy become Worth $ 5 trillion? Performance of Selected Variables for Previous Few Years Conveys a Different State of Affairs

N. S. Bhalla* , T. S. Sidhu**, Sanjeev***, Shruti Sarin****
* Global Institute of Management, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
** Shaheed Bhagat Singh Techchnical Campus, Government of Punjab Undertaking, Ferozepur, India.
*** Sidana Institute of Management and Technology, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
**** Department of Commerce, Khalsa College International School, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Bhalla, N. S., Sidhu, T. S., Sanjeev, and Sarin, S. (2020). How Would Indian Economy become Worth $ 5 Trillion? Performance of Selected Variables for the Previous Few Years Conveys a Different State of Affairs. i-manager's Journal on Economics & Commerce, 1(2), 9-16.

Abstract

Now a days, it has been frequently listened that Indian Economy would become worth $5 trillion by the end of 2024. The present government seems to be all committed to reach this mammoth target only in dialogues and speeches. Success or failure of any economy depends upon the efficiency and effectiveness of the government because the government plans, formulates policies or strategies, implements the same and deploys resources. No doubts, the external environment such as conditions prevalent in the global economy also put impact on the individual economies yet the government has a crucial role to play therein. Through this article, the authors have tried to evaluate the Indian economy on the basis of the performance of selected seven variables (GDP growth rate, Fiscal Deficit as % of GDP, Inflation Rate (Retail Consumer Price Index and wholesale Price index), Volume of Foreign Exchange Reserves, Output Growth Rate of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors, International Hunger Index) for the period of three years starting from 2016-17 to 2018-19. This article is based on the secondary data accessed from various websites and articles available online through internet. The performance of Indian economy is worth appreciating as far as Fiscal Deficit, Inflation and Foreign Exchange reserves are concerned, but the position for the rest of the variables has not been satisfactory. So the target of becoming $ 5 trillion economy seems too difficult to be achieved, if not impossible.

Research Paper

Determinants of Farmers Participation Decision into Contract Farming: Evidence from Heineken Brewery's "Create" Project in Tiyo District, Ethiopia

Solomon Alemu* , Kenenisa Beyene**
* Department of Agricultural Economics, Adama Science and Technology University, Adama, Ethiopia.
** Senior Expert in Development Bank of Ethiopia, Adama, Ethiopia.
Alemu, S., and Beyene, K. (2020). Determinants of Farmers Participation Decision into Contract Farming: Evidence from Heineken Brewery's "Create" Project in Tiyo District, Ethiopia. i-manager's Journal on Economics & Commerce, 1(2), 17-22.

Abstract

For agrarian nations like Ethiopia, vertical integration of agriculture with industry sector is considered as one of the rural development strategies. Contract Farming is one of the strategies designed to bring about vertical integration between the industry and agricultural sectors. Heineken Brewery has introduced malt barley Contract Farming scheme in wheatbarley in Tiyo District of the Arsi Zone in 2014. The participation of local farmers in this Contract Farming is not as it should be. The overall objective of this study is, therefore, to assess factors affecting the farmers' participation in Contract Farming in the study area. The study is focused on Tiyo District as it is the early adapter of Contract Farming with huge potential of malty barley production from the entire zone. Relevant information has been collected from primary sources using self-administered questionnaire. A total of 98 respondents (44 participants and 54 non participants) were selected for the study. The collected data were analyzed using logistic regression model to identify important determinants of farmers' participation in Contract Farming. The result of the logistic model revealed the fact that households education level, land size, family size, extension contact (visit) and awareness were found to be the factors determining the probability of households' participation in Contract Farming in the study area. The project owners are recommended to design intervention mechanism focusing on those factors to enhance the participation of farmers in contract farm to ensure a sustained supply of malt barley needed for the brewery.

Research Paper

An Appraisal of the Economic Outlook for the Tourism Industry, Specially Cox's Bazar in Bangladesh

Mohammad Badruddoza Talukder*
Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Daffodil Institute of Information Technology (DIIT), Under National University, Bangladesh.
Talukder, M. B. (2020). An Appraisal of the Economic Outlook for the Tourism Industry, Specially Cox's Bazar in Bangladesh. i-manager's Journal on Economics & Commerce, 1(2), 23-35.

Abstract

Currently, Cox's Bazar from Bangladesh has been recognized as a rising tourism spot amongst the fastest-growing destinations in the world. Tourism in this area has led to the development of facilities such as hotels, restaurants, airports, souvenir shops, etc., and has supported local communities in the form of job opportunities. Recently, the region has shown signs of negative environmental impacts such as overcrowding, poor waste management, security concerns, and the creation of unplanned hotels to meet very high local tourism demand. The results of the study show that Bangladesh has great opportunity for its economy to thrive on tourism and that the internationally recognized legacy of Cox's Bazar has many tourism products to attract tourists from all over the world. However, due to a lack of resources and other reasons, government initiatives are not sufficient to develop tourism in the country. The author attempts to consider some areas that need immediate attention, based on the concept of sustainability. The study methodology is descriptive based on empirical data and a wide range of literature from various disciplines, and it concludes with recommendations that interventions are necessary to develop and modernize Cox's Bazar, including other potential tourism destinations in Bangladesh.

Survey Paper

Factors Associated with Processed Food Consumption among School-Going Adolescents in Karachi - A Cross Sectional Survey

Samia Ahmed Khan* , Kaneez Fatima**, Abid Hussain***, Faheem Javed Akhter ****, NiloferFatimi Safdar*****
*,**** Centre of Excellence, Women and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
** Consultant Obstetrician and Gynecologist, Patel Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
*** Pediatrics, Civil Hospital, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan.
***** School of Public Health, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan.
Khan, S. A., Fatima, K., Hussain, A., Akhter , F. J., and Safdar, N. F. (2020). Factors Associated with Processed Food Consumption among School-Going Adolescents in Karachi - A Cross Sectional Survey. i-manager's Journal on Economics & Commerce, 1(2), 36-44.

Abstract

Nutrition transition may have influenced processed food consumption, particularly in middle-income countries like Pakistan. The role of processed foods in nutrition transition has been receiving greater analysis, given that such foods tend to be high in refined sugars, salt, sodium and fats (saturated and trans). The excessive consumption of these is associated with obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). To find out the factors contributing towards processed food consumption and frequency of consumption on weekly basis among adolescents of schoolgoing age in Karachi across sectional survey has been conducted in this study, pertaining to six districts of Karachi with a sample size of 478 adolescents. This was done using a multistage simple random sampling technique. A validated ultraprocessed food consumption survey questionnaire was adopted. Basic demographics, factors promoting consumption of processed food items and weekly consumption pattern of different items were investigated in school-going adolescents. Of the total, around 92% of a dolescents consumed processed food on weekly basis due to taste (64%) and diversified range of items (41%). Out of these, males (59%) and older adolescents (52.3%) were consuming more processed food. Affordability (98%) and availability (94%) were found as the two main factors for the high consumption of processed food, whereas print and electronic media advertisements (91%), peer pressure (83%) and women employment (59%) were found as the promoting factors for excessive consumption. The consumable items included cold drinks (76%), breads and buns (68%), Banaspati ghee (67%), butter (64%), tetra pack sweetened milks (60%), dawn paratha (44%), jams and marmalades (43%), crisps and snacks (42%), fruit juices (40%), and chocolates (39%). Processed food consumption and its major impact on health are commonly seen in adolescent group. Convenience, affordable prices, peer influences, and heavy marketing of processed and fast food has increased the level of consumption. The study is a preliminary investigation survey providing some evidence on ultra-processed food consumption among school-going adolescents in Karachi. Future research should be done on effective nutrition intervention and promotion strategies to reduce excessive consumption of processed food among the said age group.