i-manager's Journal on Chemical Sciences (JCHEM)


Volume 1 Issue 2 January - June 2020

Research Paper

Production of Modified Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Sawdust and Wheat Straw

Oscar M. Kazembe* , I. Mutadza **
*-** Department of Chemical and Process Systems Engineering, Harare Institute of Technology, Zimbabwe.
Kazembe, O. M., and Mutadza, I. (2020). Production of Modified Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Sawdust and Wheat Straw. i-manager's Journal on Chemical Sciences, 1(2), 1-10.

Abstract

Mines in Zimbabwe are facing a challenge in acquiring modified carboxymethyl cellulose with enhanced depressive properties in flotation pulps because at the moment it is not being produced in the country and this triggered the research on the production of the in demand flotation depressant from wheat straw and sawdust. This involved the extraction of cellulose from wheat straw and sawdust and then modification of the cellulose to carboxymethyl cellulose. A 31.04 % yield of cellulose was successfully extracted from wheat straw and 49.28% from sawdust through alkali treatment process. The cellulose was then converted to Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) by mercerization with various sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations and subsequently etherified with monochloroacetic acid. The CMC yield of cellulose samples from wheat straw and sawdust were 76.80% and 76.40% respectively. The absolute degree of substitution (DSabs) of CMC was found to increase with increasing concentrations of NaOH up to 30% (w/v) of NaOH and decreased at higher NaOH concentration. The molecular weight was determined using intrinsic viscosity and was found to have the same trend as DSabs. Higher DSabs provide a stronger inter-molecular interaction between carboxymethyl and hydroxyl groups which result in higher mechanical properties.

Research Paper

Synthesis of a Moringa Based Coagulant Functionalized by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Felistas Gwaindepi * , Itai Mutadza **
*-** Department of Chemical and Process Systems Engineering, Harare Institute of Technology, Zimbabwe.
Gwaindepi, F., and Mutadza, I. (2020). Synthesis of a Moringa Based Coagulant Functionalized by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. i-manager's Journal on Chemical Sciences, 1(2), 11-20.

Abstract

Currently, Zimbabwe as a whole has been facing economic challenges in various ways, and this has greatly affected the functionality of quite a number of industries. Taking into consideration of the water treatment industries, mainly all city councils have been facing difficulties in meeting the potable water demand due to lack of funds to purchase the highly expensive chemicals required for raw water treatment. This research serves to provide an alternative to the coagulant used in most water treatment facilities in Zimbabwe, with reference to the City of Gweru. A moringa based coagulant functionalized by iron oxide nanoparticles was synthesized consisting of a ratio of moringa seed extract and iron oxide nanoparticles in a ratio of 3:1. In addition to the economic benefits of the moringa based coagulant, it is also environmentally friendly. The amount of non-biodegradable sludge resulting from the use of aluminium sulphate can be reduced. The synthesized coagulant is partly organic due to the presence of the moringa seed extract, making it biodegradable. It also has magnetic properties due to the presence of the iron oxide nanoparticles. These can be separated easily from the organic part of the sludge through application of a magnetic field and reused again in the synthesis of the coagulant or for other purposes. Jar test experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dosage of the moringa based coagulant and also to compare properties of water treated with the magnetic coagulant to water treated with aluminium sulphate and moringa seed extract separately. The magnetic coagulant gave the best results with a minimum dosage of 45 mg/L. A turbidity removal of 91.5% and a pH of 7.04 was observed.

Research Paper

Biomethanation Using Canteen and Silk Industry Waste

Babitha M.* , Nischitha S. P. **
* Department of Civil Engineering, Rajarajeswari College of Engineering, Bangalore, India.
** Bangalore University, Bangalore, India.
Babitha, M., and Nischitha, S. P. (2020). Biomethanation Using Canteen and Silk Industry Waste. i-manager's Journal on Chemical Sciences, 1(2), 21-27.

Abstract

This research is based on the bio digestion of organic waste generated from canteen waste and silk industry waste. The process of bio gasification is one which converts organic waste into carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. In this research work, food wastes from Rajarajeswari College of Engineering are collected from college and hostel canteens, having separate mess, daily a large volume of waste from kitchen is generated, these wastes can be utilized as a resource. Biogas production required anaerobic digestion. This research work is to provide the method of processing food waste to generate bio-fuel which will be more eco friendly and cost effective. A premium quality renewable fuel is generated from kitchen waste which reduces carbon dioxide and methane emissions. In general, setting up of Biogas reactor in campus will be beneficial. Food wastes from hostel and canteens of RRCE serves as a feedstock for reactor which shoots up the anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. Anaerobic digestion is a biological process with microbial activity to generate biogas consisting of carbon dioxide and methane. But any experimentation requires complete knowledge and information regarding component characteristics and its quantity in the bio gas produced. Continuous feed digester requires maintaining the neutral pH and alkalinity. The rate production can be determined at laboratory scale by using simple digester. Biogas can be used as a source of energy and also for various other purposes. A combination of these mixed Inoculum was used for biogas production at room temperature in laboratory (small scale) reactor (50L capacity). In our study, the production of biogas and methane is done from the food wastes and silk industry wastes and determined in laboratory with the simple digesters.

Research Paper

Analysis of Ground Water Quality by Using Physico-Chemical Parameters at QIS Educational Institutions, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh

Ravi Kumar Garre*
Department of Civil Engineering, St. Peter's Engineering College, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
Garre, R. K. (2020). Analysis of Ground Water Quality by Using Physico-Chemical Parameters at QIS Educational Institutions, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh. i-manager's Journal on Chemical Sciences, 1(2), 28-31.

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to analyze the quality of various physical and chemical parameters of ground water from a well, which is selected as a source of water supply for QIS Educational Institutions, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh. So, it is necessary to assess the quality of water of the source. For this assessment, a sample of water was collected and analyzed at the Environmental Engineering lab at QISIT. The quality of the sample estimated with various important physicochemical parameters like acidity, alkalinity, pH, chlorides concentration, hardness, total solids, Dissolved Oxygen, Electrical Conductivity, temperature and fluorides concentration during pre-monsoon and post monsoon periods. The results were compared with WHO and IS recommendations of drinking water standards and then concluded that the water is safe for drinking during the periods post-monsoon and pre-monsoon.

Research Paper

Modeling of Chromium (VI) Adsorption on Limonia Acidissima Hull Powder Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach

D. KRISHNA* , R. Padma Sree **
* Department of Chemical Engineering, MVGR College of Engineering, Vizianagaram, India.
** Department of Chemical Engineering, Andhra University College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam, India.
Krishna, D., and Sree, R. P. (2020). Modeling of Chromium (VI) Adsorption on Limonia Acidissima Hull Powder Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach. i-manager's Journal on Chemical Sciences, 1(2), 32-38.

Abstract

Batch experiment was carried out for the removal of Chromium (VI) from aqueous solution to get experimental data to which an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed using 16 experimental data points (for testing) and 36 experimental data points (for training). A single layer feed forward back propagation was used to get minimum mean square error with eleven neurons in hidden layer. To develop ANN model, a tan sigmoid transfer function for input and purelin for output layers were used. The optimized process parameters viz., adsorbent dosage, pH and initial concentration of chromium (VI) were obtained along with the maximum percentage removal of Chromium (VI). The predicted ANN model data were in perfect match with the experimental data based on the regression coefficient R2 of 0.995. The optimized parameters along with maximum percentage removal of chromium (VI) were achieved by means of pattern search method in Genetic Algorithm.