i-manager's Journal on Digital Signal Processing (JDP)


Volume 1 Issue 2 April - June 2013

Research Paper

Daubechies, Coiflet, Symlet and Biorthogonal Wavelet Transforms for Effectual Image Compression and Analysis of Fidelity Measures

Siripurapu Sridhar* , P. Rajesh Kumar**, K. V. Ramanaiah***
* Department of ECE, Lendi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Andhra Pradesh, India.
** Department of ECE, AU College of Engineering, Andhra University, Andhra Pradesh, India.
*** Department of ECE, YSR Engineering College of Yogi Vemana University, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Sridhar,S.,Kumar,R.P., and Ramanaiah.K.V. (2013). Daubechies, Coiflet, Symlet And Biorthogonal Wavelet Transforms For Effectual Image Compression And Analysis Of Fidelity Measures. i-manager’s Journal on Digital Signal Processing, 1(2), 1-9 https://doi.org/10.26634/jdp.1.2.2326

Abstract

Wavelet transforms are set of mathematical functions that represent image as a sum of wavelet functions with different locations and scales. Wavelet transformations provide information in both frequency domain and spatial domain as well, standard de-facto images of varying sizes are subjected to two level decomposition using wavelet filter functions like Haar, Daubechies, Biorthogonal, Coiflets and Symlets etc. The transformed approximation and detail coefficients, typically infinite precision real numbers are then quantized such that the more important coefficients are represented with higher accuracy while those with less accuracy are neglected. In quantization input values are mapped to output values, based on particular threshold levels. The quantized coefficients are further coded in a bit stream using recursive splitting Huffman encoding. This study evaluates and compares the merits of selected Wavelet transform techniques for different filter functions graphically to discuss important features of wavelets in image compression. Objective fidelity metrics Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE) and Compression Ratio (CR) obtained are shown graphically.

Research Paper

Cost Effective, Error Prone and Time Consuming Solution for Digital Energy Meter by using Wireless Prepaid Billing

Sheikh Rafik Manihar Ahmed*
Associate Design Engineer I, Control System, Fluor Daniel India Private Limited, Gurgaon, New Delhi, India.
Ahmed,S,R,M., (2013). Cost Effective, Error Prone And Time Consuming Solution For Digital Energy Meter By Using Wireless Prepaid Billing. i-manager’s Journal on Digital Signal Processing, 1(2), 10-18. https://doi.org/10.26634/jdp.1.2.2327

Abstract

The present system of energy billing is error prone and also time and labor consuming. Errors get introduced at every stage of energy billing like errors with electro-mechanical meters, human errors while noting down the meter reading, and errors while processing the paid bills and the due bills. There are many cases where the bill is paid and then is shown as a due amount in the next bill. There is no proper way to know the consumer’s maximum demand, and usage details. The major drawback of a post paid system is that there is no control of usage from the consumer’s side. There is a lot of wastage of power due to the consumer’s lack of planning of electrical consumption in an efficient way. Since the supply of power is limited, as a responsible citizen, there is a need to utilize electricity in a better and efficient way. The distribution company has to receive huge amounts in the form of pending bills, which results in substantial revenue losses. The remedy for this drawback is prepaid energy meter means “pay first and then use”. A wireless billing system in which issue of energy in units (of several categories e.g. 50 units, 100 units and so on) is put for an option to the consumer. Once the consumer recharge its meter then normally they will be mindful of that quota of energy, and so they will consume it accordingly and economically as in the case of mobile. When the finish line is a certain units away, an alarm system will remind them of fresh recharging.

Research Paper

Autonomous Self Healing Of Reconfigurable Circuits

B. Harikrishna* , S.Ravi**
* Research Scholar, Sathyabama University, Chennai, India.
** Professor & Head, Department of Electronics Engineering, Dr.M.G.R University, Chennai.
Harikrishna.B., and Ravi.S. (2013). Autonomous Self Healing Of Reconfigurable Circuits. i-manager’s Journal on Digital Signal Processing, 1(2), 19-23. https://doi.org/10.26634/jdp.1.2.2328

Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of the fault tolerance achieved by an autonomous evolvable system. By using this method the system may self recover from both transient and cumulative faults. In this paper we present a new technique NSCLB for reconfiguring FPGA circuits. An example of 24 CLBs is tested and results show that it may properly recover more number of faults. The faulty CLB is replaced both structurally and functionally. By selecting the nearest spare the routing path is decreased. The method is implemented using VHDL language in Xilinx10.1 version.

Research Paper

Flexible optical pulse generation for laser micromachining using FPGA board with integrated high-speed DAC

C.E. Ong* , Teh Peh Chiong**, 0***, Lee Sheng Chyan****
* Research Assistant, University of Tunku Abdul Rahman.
**-**** Assistant Professor, University of Tunku Abdul Rahman.
Ong,C,E.,Chiong,T,P.,Ho,Y,K., and Chyan,L,S., (2013). Flexible Optical Pulse Generation For Laser Micromachining Using FPGA Board With Integrated High-Speed DAC . i-manager’s Journal on Digital Signal Processing, 1(2), 24-29. https://doi.org/10.26634/jdp.1.2.2329

Abstract

This paper describes the novel approach of using a custom Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board to generate digital arbitrary waveforms which is subsequently converted into analog waveforms via a high speed Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) IC. The FPGA codes are designed and optimized to generate very fast rise/fall times waveforms with the flexibility to vary both the pulse duration and pulse frequency in real time through a microcontroller with serial interface. These custom defined waveforms are then used to generate high intensity laser pulses when connected to a 1064nm fiber laser source. These pulsed laser sources have potential industrial applications in precision laser micromachining, where the high thermal intensity of the laser pulses can be used to perform ablation, cutting, drilling or annealing of processed materials. By able to tailor the shape of the delivered laser pulses, this will lead to reduction in processing time, improves the efficiency of material removal and the quality of the end product. Our custom board can generate arbitrary tailored pulses as short as 10ns and the longest pulse is 150ns. The pulse repetition rate can be tuned from 100kHz to 10MHz

Research Paper

A Digital Stochastic Gradient-Ascent Maximum Power-Point Tracking Technique for Photovoltaic Applications

Yun Chiu*
Associate Professor, Analog and Mixed-Signal Lab, Texas Analog Center of Excellence, University of Texas at Dallas, USA.
Chiu,Y.(2013). A Digital Stochastic Gradient-Ascent Maximum Power-Point Tracking Technique For Photovoltaic Applications. i-manager’s Journal on Digital Signal Processing, 1(2), 30-34. https://doi.org/10.26634/jdp.1.2.2330

Abstract

A digital-domain gradient-ascent algorithm is presented to identify and maintain the peak power operating point of a photovoltaic (PV) source with variable I-V characteristics. The approach employs a low-level dither, realized by a one-bit, 64-sample pseudorandom noise (PN) sequence, to perturb the duty cycle of a boost converter that extracts energy from a PV source for battery charging. The digital-domain optimization process operates continuously in the background, and is robust against measurement noise, offset, jitter, and the inherent large-signal nonlinear dynamics of the boost converter. Acquiring a single sample in each switching cycle, i.e., no oversampling for the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), the digital processor consists of a few adders, flip-flops, and one multiplier, which, in conjunction with the ADC, can be integrated with the driver integrated circuit (IC) of the boost converter for very low cost. Simulation verifies the tracking effectiveness of the proposed technique, and demonstrates a stable operation in presence of large power-on and load transients, with an average output power of ≥ 98.5% of the peak value consistently achieved in steady state.