i-manager's Journal on Civil Engineering (JCE)


Volume 1 Issue 2 March - May 2011

Research Paper

Seismic Soil Liquefaction Mitigation for Waterfront Slopes

Ahmad Jafari Mehrabadi* , Radu Popescu**
* Parsconsult Engineering Company, Tehran, Iran.
** URS Corporation, Princeton, NJ, USA.
Mehrabadi, A, J., and Popescu, R. (2011). Seismic Soil Liquefaction Mitigation For Waterfront Slopes. i-manager’s Journal on Civil Engineering, 1(2), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.26634/jce.1.2.1437

Abstract

During past earthquakes soil liquefaction has had catastrophic effects including loss of human life and severe damage to many structures all over the globe. This paper presents some results of numerical studies on the performance and effectiveness of different seismic liquefaction countermeasures considered for a waterfront slope within the framework of the NSERC Liquefaction Remediation Initiative (LRI) centrifuge experiments. The performance of several remediation techniques proposed in LRI is studied and discussed. In addition, one more feasible mitigation solution is proposed for waterfront slopes with a performance comparable to that of the measures studied in LRI. Fragility curves are used to represent the effectiveness of different liquefaction remediation techniques at different earthquake intensities. It is shown that the relative effectiveness of various types of liquefaction countermeasures is strongly associated with the level of seismic intensity.

Research Paper

Kinematic analysis of landslides along National Highway 1B between Batote and Doda NW Himalaya

B.A. Lone* , Kaiser Bukhari**
* Department of Geology, University of Jammu, Jammu.
** Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar.
Lone, B. A. and Bukhari, S. K. (2011). Kinematic Analysis Of Landslides Along National Highway 1b Between Batote And Doda Nw Himalaya. i-manager’s Journal on Civil Engineering, 1(2), 14-26. https://doi.org/10.26634/jce.1.2.1438

Abstract

When a natural process disrupts humans, it no longer operates as a separate entity, but one that intersects and possesses a threat to humans. This intersection is termed ‘natural hazard’. India is vulnerable to different natural hazards due to its proximity to geodynamically active locales and unique climatic pattern. Both these factors in different combinations lead to the occurrence of disasters resulting from natural hazards like floods, earthquakes, draught, cyclones and landslides in different parts of the country at frequent intervals. It is observed that impact of natural disasters is felt more severely by people who are socio-economically weak because their habitats are located in vulnerable areas and not designed to withstand the impact of natural disasters. Therefore, the processes of poverty eradication and disaster management are intricately linked. A great majority of slope failures in Jammu & Kashmir State occurs along National Highways and roads. The study of the landslide/slope failure problem in this region is of great concern and a challenge before the geoscientific community to be tackled.  The factors generally responsible for this problem are topography, climate, lithology, relative relief (local height), slope angle, structure, drainage, seismicity, landuse and landcover, and anthropogenic activities.  The present work is focused on the factors responsible for the initiation of landslide/slope failure along the Jammu - Kishtwar National highway in the Batote - Doda sector.

Research Paper

Strength Behaviour of Clay Soil Reinforced With Coir, Glass and Metal Fibres

Indhumathi* , R. Thenmozhi**
* PG Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore.
** Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore.
Indhumathi, P. and Thenmozhi, R. (2011). Strength Behaviour Of Clay Soil Reinforced With Coir, Glass And Metal Fibres. i-manager’s Journal on Civil Engineering, 1(2), 27-33. https://doi.org/10.26634/jce.1.2.1439

Abstract

A large part of central India and a portion of south India are covered with clay soils. These soils have high swelling and shrinkage characteristics and extremely low shear strength. Hence, there is need for improvement of these properties. The practice of using reinforced earth has been well established in soil engineering profession. The use of natural and artificial fibres is a suitable method for soil reinforcing. This method is considered on the condition of optimum mix and suitable moisture. The present study is aimed at determining the behaviour of clay soil reinforced with glass fibre of length 6mm, coir fibre with 12mm length and metal fibre with 20mm length in a random manner. The soil used is a type of clay soil collected from Saibaba colony in Coimbatore district. The composite soils were tested under laboratory conditions and examined for unconfined compression strength (UCS) and compaction test. The fibres are mixed randomly with soil in varying percentages (0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%) by dry weight of soil and compacted to maximum dry density at optimum moisture content. The test results indicate a reduction in the maximum dry density and increase in optimum moisture content of soil due to the addition of fibres. It also indicates an improvement in the UCS of soil due to the addition of fibres.

Research Paper

Study of Key Parameters and Monitoring of Sediment Concentration by ANN Model in Brahmaputra River, Assam

B. Tripti* , M. Chandan**
* Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India.
** Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India.
Tripti, B., and Chandan, M. (2011). Study Of Key Parameters And Monitoring Of Sediment Concentration By Ann Model In Brahmaputra River, Assam. i-manager’s Journal on Civil Engineering, 1(2), 34-46. https://doi.org/10.26634/jce.1.2.1440

Abstract

High sediment load is an integral component of the Brahmaputra system and its role, despite being critical in the overall systemic behaviour of the river, is little understood. Due to its sheer amount and the complex behaviour of the sediment transport, its control has remained a challenge. Therefore it is very essential to know the physo-chemical characteristics and sediment load. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the properties of the sediment with the help SEM, XRD, EDX, AAS and Particle size distribution analysis and estimation of sediment load with the help of ANN to relate these properties towards. The samples were collected from three locations viz. Neamatighat (Jorhat), Bhomoraguri (Tezpur) and Pandu (Guwahati) in Assam. Mineralogical analysis is based on the bulk sample and clay sized fractions. Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na and K were analyzed in AAS for determining chemical composition of the sediments. The main aim is to identify the best technique that could adequately predict sediment load to a desired accuracy. Regression model and ANNs were developed using the toolbox of the MATLAB software and also compared with results of Datafit software models. The R2 values were ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 and COE values varied from 0.70 to 0.87 for ANNs in case of sediment concentration. Using Datafit software R2 values for same dataset varied from 0.93 to 1.0 and COE values varied from 0.72 to 0.88 for sediment concentration prediction.

Research Paper

Waste Tyre Rubber Based Concrete – A New Generation Practice for Solid Waste Management and Preventing Depletion of Natural Resources

Senthil Vadivel* , R. Thenmozhi**
* Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Arasur, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
** Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
Vadivel, S, T., and Thenmozhi, R. (2011). Waste Tyre Rubber Based Concrete - A New Generation Practice For Solid Waste Management and Preventing Depletion Of Natural Resources. i-manager’s Journal on Civil Engineering, 1(2), 47-54. https://doi.org/10.26634/jce.1.2.1443

Abstract

Integrated waste management proposes the most progressive options for waste disposal and management; numerous research studies have indicated that waste administration, collection and recycling of waste materials for the sustainable development of resources for the forthcoming years. One of the critical solid wastes to manage in today’s scenario is waste tyre because large amounts of waste tyre rubbers are produced in the world in each year. 275 millions of waste rubbers are produced by the United States every year and about 180 millions of waste tyres produced by European Continents. Disposing of tyre wastes in a landfill is the conventional practice commonly followed by all the countries. These dumps are served as a great breeding ground for insects and mosquitoes and responsible for the spread of many diseases, this becomes a dangerous health hazard. Incineration is an alternate method of disposing the waste tyre that involves combustion due to high temperature creates global warming. Few quantities of waste tyre rubber used as fuel, pigments, roof and roof covering and for road pavement. In this study experimental investigation is carried out for the complimentary use of waste tyre rubber in both fine and coarse aggregate in concrete.

Research Paper

Numerical Analysis of Damage Propagation for Shaped Charge Jet Impacts into a Concrete Target

Joseph Indeck* , Andrew Thompson**, Seokbin Lim***
* Energetic Systems Research Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Mexico Tech, Socorro.
Indeck, J., Thompson, A., and Lim, S. (2011). Numerical Analysis Of Damage Propagation For Shaped Charge Jet Impacts Into A Concrete Target. i-manager’s Journal on Civil Engineering, 1(2), 55-62. https://doi.org/10.26634/jce.1.2.1445

Abstract

Jet impacts, from a conical shaped charge, onto a brittle concrete target were examined utilizing the numerical analysis software AUTODYN® to identify a general damage propagation trend.  In order to understand general damage propagation, parameters other than penetration depth were used.  Specific parameters including the impact angle and jet coherency were varied.  Since concrete is a heterogeneous material that contains large amounts of impurities, voids, and non-linear material characteristics, the study of damage propagation is an important topic in various applications areas.  A simplified numerical analysis of the impact event was accomplished as a preliminary study to understand the relationship of a shaped charge jet impact and subsequent damage propagation behaviors.  It was identified that the particulated jet, after elongation, creates more substantial damage propagation characteristics than that of solid jets.

Research Paper

Effect of Alkali activator/ Fly ash ratio on Strength and Workability of Low lime Fly ash based Geopolymer concrete

B. Siva Konda Reddy* , J. Varaprasad**, K. Naveen Kumar Reddy***
* Department of Civil Engineering, JNTUH College of Engineering, Hyderabad, A.P, India.
** Department of Civil Engineering, AVR & SVR College of Engineering & Tech, Nandyal, A.P, India.
*** Department of Civil Engineering, Nizam Institute of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, A.P, India.
Reddy, S, K, B., Varaprasad, J., and Reddy, N, K, K. (2011). Effect Of Alkali Activator/ Fly Ash Ratio On Strength And Workability Of Low Lime Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete. i-manager’s Journal on Civil Engineering, 1(2), 63-68. https://doi.org/10.26634/jce.1.2.1448

Abstract

This paper presents the effect of Alkali activator / Fly ash ratio (A/F) on strength and workability of geopolymer concrete prepared from low lime based fly ash and a mixed alkali activator of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. The workability of concrete is found to be increasing when the A/F ratio is increased. An increase in compressive strength of the concrete samples is observed when the A/F ratio is increased for the samples cured at 60oc.