Impact of Birth Order on Identity Formation of Adolescents

Tanya Sardana*, Meghna Ganesh**, Daisy Sharma***
*-*** Department of Psycology, Keshav Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
Periodicity:February - April'2019
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26634/jpsy.12.4.15521

Abstract

Identity formation has been a keen area of interest for researchers and it involves several physiological, cognitive, biological, emotional, and hormonal changes often influenced by the adolescent's social environment. Adler conceptualized the notion that birth order of a person can leave an indelible impression on an individual's style of life. Birth order has a profound effect on how an adolescent is perceived by their family and how a person relates to the amount of responsibility, independence, and freedom he or she has been given. Based on this ideology, this paper attempts to understand the influence of birth order on the identity formation of middle adolescents. The exploratory study undertakes a purposive sampling of 158 respondents (79 males and 79 females). Ego Identity Process Questionnaire (EIPQ) and Global Adjustment Inventory were the tools used for data collection. Correlation analysis indicated significant relationship between identity and various dimensions of adjustment. t-ratios were applied to study gender differences, though no significant results were found. Also, one-way ANOVA was applied to study between group differences. However, findings suggested no significant differences between the first and third born individuals for their identity formation process.

Keywords

Birth Order, Identity, Adjustment, Correlation, Adolescents.

How to Cite this Article?

Sardana, T., Ganesh, M., & Sharma, D. (2019). Impact of Birth Order on Identity Formation of Adolescents. i-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 12(4), 33-41. https://doi.org/10.26634/jpsy.12.4.15521

References

[1]. Adler, A. (1964). Problems of Neurosis. New York: Harper and Row
[2]. Archer, S. L. (1989). Gender differences in identity development: Issues of process, domain and timing. Journal of Adolescence, 12 (2), 117-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971(89)90003-1
[3]. Arnett, J. J. (2009). Adolescence and Emerging rd Adulthood A Cultural Approach (3 Ed.). Pearson Education,
[4]. Balistreri, E., Busch-Rossnagel, N. A., & Geisinger, K. F. (1995). Development and preliminary validation of the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire. Journal of Adolescence, 18(2), 179-192. https://doi.org/10.1006/ jado.1995.1012
[5]. Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Luyckx, K., & Meeus, W. (2008). Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: From three dimensions to five statuses. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(8), 983- 996. https:/doi.org/10.1007/s10964-007-9222-2
[6]. Edwards, R. P. & Thacker, K. (1979). The relationship of birth-order, gender, and sibling gender in the two-child family to grade point average in college. Adolescence, 14(53), 111-114.
[7]. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. Oxford, England: Norton
[8]. Hauser, R. M. & Sewell, W. H. (1985). Birth order and educational attainment in full sibships. American Educational Research Journal, 22 (1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312022001001
[9]. Jha, A. S., Dwivedi, A., & Singh, P. V. (2012). Effect of birth order, gender and medium of instruction of the adolescents on their adjustment. Voice of Research, 1 (1), 23-26. Retrieved from http://www.voiceofresearch.org/ Doc/V1_I1/V1_I1_2.pdf
[10]. Kalkan, M. (2008). The relationship of psychological birth order to irrational relationship beliefs. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 36(4), 455-466. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2008.36.4.455
[11]. Kluger, J. (2011). The Sibling Effect: What the Bonds among Brothers and Sisters Reveal about us. New York, USA, Peguin.
[12]. Kroger, J. (2007). Identity Development: Adolescence through Adulthood (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA : Sage.
[13]. Luyckx, K., Goossens, L., & Soenens, B. (2006). A developmental contextual perspective on identity construction in emerging adulthood: Change dynamics in commitment formation and commitment evaluation. Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 366-380
[14]. Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3 (5), 551-558. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0023281
[15]. Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In Adelson, J. (Ed.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, Ny, USA: Wiley.
[16]. McHale, S. M. & Crouter, A. C. (2005). Sibling relationships in childhood: implications for life-course study. Sourcebook of family theory and research. Sage, Newbury Park, 184-186.
[17]. Meeus, W., Iedema, J., Helsen, M., & Vollebergh, W. (1999). Patterns of adolescent identity development: Review of literature and longitudinal analysis. Developmental Review, 19 (4), 419-461. https://doi.org/10.1006/drev.1999.0483
[18]. Nuttall, E. V., Nuttall, R. L., Polit, D., & Hunter, J. B. (1976). The effects of family size, birth order, sibling separation and crowding on the academic achievement of boys and girls. American Educational Research Journal, 13 (3), 217-223. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312013003217
[19]. Psy-Com Services. (1994). Manual for Global Adjustment Scale (student form), New Delhi, PSY-Com Services.
[20]. Santrock, J. W. (2007). Child Development (11th Ed.). Bosten, USA : McGraw Hill.
[21]. Scheidel, D. G. & Marcia, J. E. (1985). Ego identity, intimacy, sex role orientation, and gender. Developmental Psychology, 21(1), 149-160. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012- 1649.21.1.149
[22]. Suthar, S. A. (2015). Social adjustment of college students in relation to gender. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 2(3), 67-71.

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
USD EUR INR USD-ROW
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article
Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.