K-12 Learning Theory: Understanding Conditions of Empowerment and Conflict Resolution

Gabrielle L. McBath*
Ph.D. in Educational Leadership, Northcentral University, USA.
Periodicity:June - August'2018
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26634/jsch.14.1.14005


In U.S. K-12 academia, Conditions of Empowerment and Conflict Resolution are interlinked. Covey's (1991, 2004a, 2004b) Conditions of Empowerment and Short's et al. (1993,1994a,1994b), 3 articles of Conflict Resolution connect these two examples. Covey (1991, 2004a, 2004b) suggests educational stakeholders start with the element of trust, while deriving from an honorable character. Drucker's philosophy mirrors this as well (Cohen, 2010). In order for a school district to assess empowerment for long-term goals, one must look at the strength of the faculty, not administration's in isolation. This would disregard personality traits or behavioral styles of employees. This study assessed Covey's (1991, 2004a, 2004b) Conditions of Empowerment; they include, 1. Character (i.e., Abundance Mentality), 2. Skills (i.e., communication, effective interaction, and listening with intent), 3. Win-Win Agreements, 4. Self-Supervision, and the five steps toward Accountability. Short's articles (1993, 1994a, 1994b) reveal that empowerment includes conflict resolution. Teacher-empowerment is a main criterion of managing faculty expectations and preventing unnecessary conflict in the K-12 school district. This is achieved by shared- responsibility and consistent positive communication. However, future research is needed to assess how teachers perceive empowerment from administrators.


Conditions of Empowerment, Conflict Resolution, Stephen Covey, Phillip Schlechty, Paula Short, Teacher Empowerment.

How to Cite this Article?

Mcbath, G. L. (2018). Implementation of Smart Classrooms among Secondary Schools in Puducherry Union Territory. i-manager’s Journal on School Educational Technology, 14(1), 52-57. https://doi.org/10.26634/jsch.14.1.14005


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