Exploring Interactional Metadiscourse in Remote Teaching: A Case Study of A2-Level English Learners

Arzu Ekoç-Özçelik*
Yildiz Technical University School of Foreign Languages, Istanbul, Turkey.
Periodicity:April - June'2023
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26634/jelt.13.2.19441


The use of interactional metadiscourse markers in opinion paragraphs written by A2-level English learners was investigated in this research. Although metadiscourse is commonly studied in discourse analysis, pragmatics, and language teaching, there has been limited attention given to the writing of beginner-level language learners. Metadiscourse is typically associated with advanced English learners' writing behavior. However, this study recognizes that English learners at lower proficiency levels can also employ interactional metadiscourse markers, such as hedges, boosters, attitude markers, self-mentions, and engagement markers. The study scrutinized the opinion paragraphs of 20 university students at A2-level during the period of emergency remote teaching caused by the pandemic. The analysis of metadiscourse was carried out using Hyland's model for academic texts. The paragraphs of 10 students who attended online writing classes and 10 who did not were compared. The results showed that students who attended online classes attempted to use the metadiscourse markers they had learned in their writing lessons. On the other hand, students who did not attend online classes tended to use fewer interactional metadiscourse markers. The study proposes that students' writing and communication with their readers can be considerably impacted by teachers' attitudes, lesson materials, and sample paragraphs. Therefore, metadiscourse analysis can assist teachers and material developers in selecting appropriate materials for writing instruction.


Metadiscourse, University Students, Opinion Paragraphs, L2 Writing, Writing Teacher, Remote Teaching, A2-Level, English Learners.

How to Cite this Article?

Ekoç-Özçelik, A. (2023). Exploring Interactional Metadiscourse in Remote Teaching: A Case Study of A2-Level English Learners. i-manager’s Journal on English Language Teaching, 13(2), 16-23. https://doi.org/10.26634/jelt.13.2.19441


[1]. Anwardeen, N. H., Luyee, E. O., Gabriel, J. I., & Kalajahi, S. A. R. (2013). An analysis: The usage of metadiscourse in argumentative writing by Malaysian tertiary level of students. English Language Teaching, 6(9), 83-96.
[4]. Dastjerdi, H. V. & Shirzad, M. (2010). The impact of explicit instruction of metadiscourse markers on EFL learners' writing performance. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills (JTLS), 2 (2), 155-174.
[5]. Duruk, E. (2017). Analysis of metadiscourse markers in academic written discourse produced by Turkish researchers. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(1), 1-9.
[6]. Ekoç, A. (2010). Analyzing Turkish MA Students' Use of Lexical Hedging Strategies in Theses Abstracts. Hasan Ali Yücel Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 13 (1), 49-62.
[13]. Hyland, K. (2000). Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writing. Longman, London.
[14]. Hyland, K. (2005). Metadiscourse: Exploring Interaction in Writing. Continuum, London.
[22]. Lotfi, S. A. T., Sarkeshikian, S. A. H., & Saleh, E. (2019). A cross-cultural study of the use of metadiscourse markers in argumentative essays by Iranian and Chinese EFL students. Cogent Arts & Humanities, 6(1), 1601540.
[24]. Rustipa, K. (2014). Metadiscourse in Indonesian EFL learners' persuasive texts: A case study at English Department, UNISBANK. International Journal of English Linguistics, 4(1), 44.
[25]. Sadeghi, B., & Kargar, A. (2014). The effect of explicit instruction of discourse markers on EFL learners' writing ability. International Journal of Educational Investigations, 1(1), 328-338.
[27]. Taghizadeh, M., & Tajabadi, F. (2013). Metadiscourse in essay writing: An EFL case. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4(7), 1658-1662.
[28]. Tan, H., & Eng, W. B. (2014). Metadiscourse Use in the Persuasive Writing of Malaysian Undergraduate Students. English Language Teaching, 7(7), 26-39.
[31]. Zorluel-Özer, H., & Okan, Z. (2018). Discourse markers in EFL classrooms: A corpus-driven research. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 14(1), 50-66.
[32]. Zuhal, O. K. A. N., & ÖZER, H. Z. (2018). Discourse markers in EFL classrooms: A corpus-driven research. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 14(1), 50-66.
If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.