Using Open-Source Sentinel-1A Images for Flood Susceptibility Mapping in North Bihar, India

Ashish Aggarwal*, Anjali**
*-** Petroleum & Earth Sciences Department, University of Petroleum & Energy Studies (UPES), Bidholi, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.
Periodicity:October - December'2022


Natural calamities such as floods are a severe menace, causing huge socio-environmental threats. Remote sensing technologies have proven to be a boon in precisely mapping the spatiotemporal effects and spread of floods, allowing remedial measures to be implemented on time. This paper aims to demarcate the extent of flooded areas in the study area by the application of remote sensing techniques that involve combining temporal images acquired during the flood (crisis images) with images acquired before the flood (archive images). In disaster mapping applications, the image that is acquired before the event takes place is referred to as the archive image, while the image that is acquired at the time of the event is referred to as the crisis image. The research objectives were achieved through the analysis of freely available Sentinel-1A data to delineate the extent of flooded areas in the European Space Agency's-Sentinel Applications Platform (ESA-SNAP) environment. Multi-looking, radiometric calibration, and range doppler terrain correction (geometric) were applied to the temporal images for better visualization and distinction and for projecting the pixels onto the proper map system. Later, the archive and crisis images were overlaid to form a Red Green Blue (RGB) composite that showed the extent and spread of floods in north Bihar, where each color represented areas of different significance. Further, the flood map was overlaid onto the Google Earth optical layer for better visualization and comparison. The work demonstrated the applicability and use of remote sensing and GIS technology to quickly gain insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of floods in a given region and could be used as a precursor for efficient flood management and relief measures.


Bihar Floods, Flood Mapping, Flood Inundation, Remote Sensing, Sentinel-1A, ESA-SNAP.

How to Cite this Article?

Aggarwal, A., and Anjali. (2022). Using Open-Source Sentinel-1A Images for Flood Susceptibility Mapping in North Bihar, India. i-manager’s Journal on Software Engineering, 17(2), 1-10.


[1]. Aldhshan, S. R., Mohammed, O. Z., & Shafri, H. M. (2019, November). Flash flood area mapping using sentinel-1 SAR data: A case study of eight upazilas in Sunamganj District, Bangladesh. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 357, No. 1, p. 012034). IOP Publishing.
[2]. Catalin Ioan Cimpianu and Alin Mihu-Pintilie (2018). Mapping floods using open source data and software - Sentinel-1 and ESA SNAP, International Scientific Conference GEOBALCANICA 2018, UDC: 528.47:004.4]: 627.516(498).
[3]. Khosravi, K., Pham, B. T., Chapi, K., Shirzadi, A., Shahabi, H., Revhaug, I., ... & Bui, D. T. (2018). A comparative assessment of decision trees algorithms for flash flood susceptibility modeling at Haraz watershed, northern Iran. Science of the Total Environment, 627, 744-755.
[4]. Kumar, H., Karwariya, S. K., & Kumar, R. (2022). Google Earth Engine-Based Identification of Flood Extent and Flood-Affected Paddy Rice Fields using Sentinel-2 MSI and Sentinel-1 SAR Data in Bihar State, India. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 50(5), 791-803.
[5]. Megha, V., Joshi, V., Kakde, N., Jaybhaye, A., & Dhoble, D. (2019). Flood Mapping and Analysis using Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP)–A Case Study of Kerala. Int. J. Res. Eng. Sci. Manage, 2, 486-488.
[6]. Rapid Assessment Report Bihar Flood (2013). Relief web, Available at
[7]. Rättich, M., Martinis, S., & Wieland, M. (2020). Automatic flood duration estimation based on multisensor satellite data. Remote Sensing, 12(4), 643.
[8]. Tripathi, G., Pandey, A. C., Parida, B. R., & Kumar, A. (2020). Flood inundation mapping and impact assessment using multi-temporal optical and SAR satellite data: a case study of 2017 Flood in Darbhanga district, Bihar, India. Water Resources Management, 34(6), 1871-1892.
If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.