The Relationship between Fear of Covid-19 and Life Satisfaction: Coping Strategies with Covid-19 and Perceived Social Support as Mediators

Abdullah Manap*, Cemal Karada?**
* Batman University, Batman, Turkey.
** Inonu University, Turkey.
Periodicity:February - April'2022

Abstract

This study investigated the mediating role of coping strategies and perceived social support in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and life satisfaction. The study adopted a quantitative approach with a correlational design. The study group included 729 participants, and of these participants, 347 were women (47.6%) and 382 were men (52.4%). To collect the data, a personal information form, multidimensional scale of perceived social support, coping with the pandemic scale and fear of COVID scale, and Life Satisfaction Scale were used. The data were collected online through Google Forms. Before the path analysis, assumptions such as multicollinearity and normality were checked, which showed that the data were suitable for the analysis. Nearly all the correlations between the variables were significant except the one between fear of COVID and life satisfaction. The path analysis suggested that there was no significant association between fear of COVID and life satisfaction. However, the life satisfaction of individuals with fear of COVID increases as they use more coping strategies and perceive a higher level of social support. The current study, conducted on individuals who were lonely with some social and personal problems during the pandemic, will contribute to the literature. Finally, some suggestions were given based on the findings.

Keywords

COVID-19, Fear of COVID, Coping, Social Support, Life Satisfaction.

How to Cite this Article?

Manap, A., and Karadaş, C. (2022). The Relationship between Fear of Covid-19 and Life Satisfaction: Coping Strategies with Covid-19 and Perceived Social Support as Mediators. i-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 15(4), 64-72.

References

[1]. Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C. Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8
[2]. Allison, P. D. (1999). Multiple Regression: A Primer. Pine Forge Press..
[3]. Alorani, O. I., & Alradaydeh, M. T. F. (2018). Spiritual well-being, perceived social support, and life satisfaction among university students. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 23(3), 291-298. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 02673843.2017.1352522
[4]. Aquino, J. A., Russell, D. W., Cutrona, C. E., & Altmaier, E. M. (1996). Employment status, social support, and life satisfaction among the elderly. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(4), 480-489. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.43.4.480
[5]. Barrett, A. E. (1999). Social support and life satisfaction among the never married: Examining the effects of age. Research on Aging, 21(1), 46-72. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027599211003
[6]. Buser, J. K., & Kearney, A. (2017). Stress, adaptive coping, and life satisfaction. Journal of College Counseling, 20(3), 224-236. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocc.12071
[7]. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2), 267. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.2.267
[8]. Chua, S. E., Cheung, V., McAlonan, G. M., Cheung, C., Wong, J. W., Cheung, E. P., ... & Tsang, K. W. (2004). Stress and psychological impact on SARS patients during the outbreak. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(6), 385-390. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370404900607
[9]. Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative (Vol. 7). Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ.
[10]. Dağlı, A., & Baysal, N. (2016). Adaptation of the satisfaction with life scale into Turkish: The study of validity and reliability. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 15(59), 1250-1262. https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.263229
[11]. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
[12]. Eker, D.,Arkar, H., & Yaldız, H. (2001). Factorial structure, validity, and reliability of revised form of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 12(1), 17-25.
[13]. Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2004). Coping: Pitfalls and promise. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 745-774. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141456
[14]. Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (Vol. 7, p. 429). New York: McGraw-hill.
[15]. Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2009). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. Merrill/Pearson.
[16]. Gerhold, L. (2020, March 25). COVID-19: Risk perception and coping strategies. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/xmpk4
[17]. Hair, J. F.,Anderson, R. E., Babin, B. J., & Black, W. C. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective (Vol. 7), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
[18]. Hamarat, Dennis Thompson, Karen M. Zabrucky, Don Steele, Kenneth B. Matheny, Ferda Aysan, E. (2001). Perceived stress and coping resource availability as predictors of life satisfaction in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Experimental Aging Research, 27(2), 181-196. https://doi.org/10.1080/036107301750074051
[19]. Hatun, O., Dicle, A. N., & Demirci, İ. (2020). Psychological reflections of the coronavirus pandemic and coping with the pandemic. Turkish Studies, 15(4), 531-554.
[20]. Kasprzak, E. (2010). Perceived social support and life-satisfaction. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 41(4), 144-154. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10059-010-0019-x
[21]. Kim, J. H., Shim, Y., Choi, I., & Choi, E. (2022). The role of coping strategies in maintaining well-being during the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 13(1), 320-332. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550621990595
[22]. Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. Guilford Publications, New York.
[23]. Kong, F., & You, X. (2013). Loneliness and self-esteem as mediators between social support and life satisfaction in late adolescence. Social Indicators Research, 110(1), 271-279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-011-9930-6
[24]. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. Springer Publishing Company.
[25]. Lenhardt, G., & Andretta, I. (2022). Air Disaster: Coping Strategies, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress. Trends in Psychology, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43076-021-00126-7
[26]. Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 151-173. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_1
[27]. Mitchell, R. J. (1992). Testing evolutionary and ecological hypotheses using path analysis and structural equation modelling. Functional Ecology, 123-129. https://doi.org/10.2307/2389745
[28]. Nasser-Abu Alhija, F., & Wisenbaker, J. (2006). A Monte Carlo study investigating the impact of item parceling strategies on parameter estimates and their standard errors in CFA. Structural Equation Modeling, 13(2), 204-228. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1302_3
[29]. Pradhan, D.,Biswasroy, P., Ghosh, G., & Rath, G. (2020). A review of current interventions for COVID-19 prevention. Archives of Medical Research. 51, 363-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.04.020
[30]. Roohafza, H. R., Afshar, H., Keshteli, A. H., Mohammadi, N., Feizi, A., Taslimi, M., & Adibi, P. (2014). What's the role of perceived social support and coping styles in depression and anxiety?. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 19(10), 944.
[31]. Saha, R., Huebner, E. S., Hills, K. J., Malone, P. S., & Valois, R. F. (2014). Social coping and life satisfaction in adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 115(1), 241-252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0217-3
[32]. Satici, B., Gocet-Tekin, E., Deniz, M., & Satici, S. A. (2021). Adaptation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Its association with psychological distress and life satisfaction in Turkey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 19(6), 1980-1988. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00294-0
[33]. Sümer, N. (2000). Structural equation modeling: Basic concepts and applications. Turkish Psychological Articles, 3(6), 49-74.
[34]. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics: International Edition. Pearson.
[35]. Tahara, M., Mashizume, Y., & Takahashi, K. (2021). Coping mechanisms: Exploring strategies utilized by Japanese healthcare workers to reduce stress and improve mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 131. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010131
[36]. Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(2), 320. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.86.2.320
[37]. Trzebiski, J., Cabaski, M., & Czarnecka, J. Z. (2020). Reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic: The influence of meaning in life, life satisfaction, and assumptions on world orderliness and positivity. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 25(6-7), 544-557. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1765098
[38]. Ullman, J. B. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling. In B. G. Tabachnickand L. S. Fidell (Eds.), Using Multivariate Statistics (6th ed.) (pp.681-785). Boston: Pearson.
[39]. Wan, C. K., Jaccard, J., & Ramey, S. L. (1996). The relationship between social support and life satisfaction as a function of family structure. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 502-513. https://doi.org/10.2307/353513
[40]. Wang, T., Du, Z., Zhu, F., Cao, Z., An, Y., Gao, Y., & Jiang, B. (2020). Comorbidities and multi-organ injuries in the treatment of COVID-19. The Lancet, 395(10228), e52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30558-4
[41]. Wang, J., Mann, F., Lloyd-Evans, B., Ma, R., & Johnson, S. (2018). Associations between loneliness and perceived social support and outcomes of mental health problems: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1736-5
[42]. Worldometers. (2022). Retrieved from https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/turkey/
[43]. Wu, F., Zhao, S., Yu, B., Chen, Y. M., Wang, W., Song, Z. G., ... & Zhang, Y. Z. (2020). A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature, 579(7798), 265-269. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3
[44]. Venkatesh, V. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19: A research agenda to support people in their fight. International Journal of İnformation Management, 55, 102197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102197
[45]. Yang, C., Nay, S., & Hoyle, R. H. (2010). Three approaches to using lengthy ordinal scales in structural equation models: Parceling, latent scoring, and shortening scales. Applied Psychological Measurement, 34(2), 122-142. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146621609338592
[46]. Yildiz, M. A., & Karadas, C. (2017). Multiple mediation of self-esteem and perceived social support in the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(3), 130-139.
[47]. Young, K. W. (2005). Social support and life satisfaction. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 10(2).
[48]. Zacher, H., & Rudolph, C. W. (2021). Individual differences and changes in subjective wellbeing during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. American Psychologist, 76(1), 50. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000702
[49]. Zhang, S. X., Wang, Y., Rauch, A., & Wei, F. (2020). Health, distress and life satisfaction of people in China one month into the COVID-19 outbreak. Distress and Life Satisfaction of People in China One Month into the COVID-19 Outbreak.
[50]. Zimet, G. D., Powell, S. S., Farley, G. K., Werkman, S., & Berkoff, K. A. (1990). Psychometric characteristics of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55(3-4), 610-617. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.1990.9674095
If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
USD EUR INR USD-ROW
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.