The Struggle of Fighting Polio Virus in Pakistan: A Review

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Periodicity:November - January'2021

Abstract

Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease which is caused by polio virus. It belongs to family picornaviridae. This virus is mainly responsible for causing paralysis (person unable to move his parts of body) if it gets severe. Polio myelitis is so contagious that it can be transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person through direct contact. Polio virus is often found in person’s throat and intestines; therefore, it can also be transmitted via fecal-oral route i.e. polio virus is present in the feces of an infected person, who when defecate in the open environment gives virus an opportunity to enter in the water supply or food. The uninfected person when ingest these food or water, also gets infected; therefore, polio virus is mostly found in poor sanitation areas (Global health, 2017). As soon as the virus enters the body, if it invades the brain and spinal cord, it leads to paralysis. The incubation time period for polio virus is approximately 5-35 days and shows three different patterns i.e. subclinical, abortive, non-paralytic and paralytic symptoms. To confirm the diagnosis for poliomyelitis; stool, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and throat secretions sample are drawn for polio virus. According to 1988 statistics, poliomyelitis was very much prevalent in the world, but it is under control. Sadly, Pakistan is still counted in the countries which are not free from the polio virus, thus cases of polio are still being reported (CDC, 2017). There is no cure for polio once the polio virus invades your body. However, early prevention i.e. vaccination can protect you from getting polio virus (Davis, 2016). Moreover, the children under the age of 5 are more vulnerable to get infected by polio virus.

Keywords

children, fecal-oral transmission, polio virus

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