Lateral Response of Pile Group

Jasim M Abbas*
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Diyala University, Iraq.
Periodicity:June - August'2011


The main objective for this study is to determine the relationship between pile spacing and p-multipliers (fm - pile-to-pile modulus multiplier) for a laterally loaded pile-group.  In addition, the appropriate p-multipliers for a 3-pile group configuration at 2D, 4D, 6D and 8D pile spacing is also determined. Therefore, a three-dimensional finite element approach was used to assess the lateral pile and pile group response subjected to pure lateral load. Results of the influence of load intensities, group configuration, pile spacing are discussed in terms of response of load vs. lateral displacement, load vs. soil resistance and corresponding p-y curves. The improved plots can be used for laterally loaded pile design and also to produce the group action design p-multiplier curves and equations. As a result, design curves were developed and applied on the actual case studies and similar expected cases for assessment of pile group behavior using improved p-multiplier. A design equation was derived from predicted design curves to be used in the evaluation of the lateral pile group action. It was found that the group interaction effect led to reduced lateral resistance for the pile in the group relative to that for the single pile.


Pile Group, Numerical Analysis, Lateral load, p-multiplier, Group Configuration

How to Cite this Article?

Abbas, J, M. (2011). Lateral Response Of Pile Group. i-manager’s Journal on Civil Engineering, 1(3), 13-17.


[1]. Brinkgreve, R.B.J., & Broere, W. (2004). PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION - version 1. Netherlands.
[2]. Brown, D.A., Morrison, C., and Reese, L.C. (1988). Laterally load behavior of pile group in sand. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division. Vol. 114, No.11, pp.1261-1276.
[3]. Dunnavant, T.W., and O'Neill, M.W. (1986). Evaluation of design-oriented methods for analysis of vertical pile groups subjected to lateral load. Numerical Methods in Offshore Piling, Inst. Francais du Petrole, Labortoire Central des ponts et Chausses, 303-316.
[4]. Duncan, J.M., Evans, L.T., and Ooi, P.S. (1994). Lateral load analysis of single piles and drilled shafts. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE , Vol.120, No. 6, pp. 1018-1033.
[5]. Kahyaoglu, M.R., Imancli, G., Ozturk, A.U., and Kayalar, A.S. (2009). Computational 3D finite element analyses of model passive piles. Computational Materials Science. (In press)
[6]. Karthigeyan, S., Ramakrishna, V.V.G.S.T., and Rajagopal K. (2006). Influence of vertical load on the lateral response of piles in sand. Computer and Geotechnics, Vol. 33, pp.121-131.
[7]. Iyer, P.K., & Sam, C. (1991). 3-D elastic analysis of three-pile caps. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 117(12).
[8]. Mokwa, R. L. and Duncan, J. M. (2001). Laterally loaded pile group effects and p-y multipliers. ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication, GSP No. 113, Foundations and Ground Improvement, Proceedings of the GEO-Odyssey Conference, Blacksburg, VA, pp. 728-742.
[9]. Remaud D., Garnier J., Frank R. (1998). Laterally Loaded Piles in dense sand: Group Effects. Proc. Centrifuge 98. Tokyo: 533-538.
[10]. Rollins K. M., Peterson, K.T., and Weaver, T. J. (1998). Lateral load behavior of full-scale pile group in clay. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol. 124, No. 6, pp.468-478.
[11]. Rollins K. M., Lane J. D. and Gerber T M. (2005). Measured and Computed Lateral Response of a Pile Group in Sand. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE. Vol.131, No. 1, pp.103-114.
[12]. Rollins, K.M., Olsen2 K.G., Jensen D.H., Garrett B.H., Olsen R.J., and Egbert, J.J. (2006). Pile Spacing Effects on Lateral Pile Group Behavior: Analysis. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE. Vol.132, No. 10, pp.1272-1283.
If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.