Understanding and Dealing with Academic Procrastination

Ahmet Erdost Yastibas*
English Language Instructor, Atlim University, Ankara, Turkey.
Periodicity:January - March'2020
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26634/jelt.10.1.16559


Academic procrastination is a commonly experienced issue among university students, which generally affects their academic performances negatively. In the researcher's English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classes, his students faced procrastination problems in the formative assessment tasks. Therefore, the researcher decided to conduct an exploratory action research to help them deal with academic procrastination. This study applied experimental research design. 64 students in three EAP classes participated into the research. Two interventions were used in two Experiment Groups (EG). The Academic Procrastination Scale – Short Form with open-ended questions, the students' time management checklists, and researcher's field notes were used to collect data. Though the results indicated that the interventions did not lead to any statistically significant difference in the perceived levels of the participants in the EGs, the second - main intervention could reduce the observed academic procrastination of the participants in the 2EG. Also, most of the participants thought the checklist-based interventions could help them to develop time management awareness, organize their time, and do their tasks in an organized way.


Academic Procrastination, Intervention, English for Academic Purposes.

How to Cite this Article?

Yastibas, A. E. (2020). Understanding and Dealing with Academic Procrastination. i-manager's Journal on English Language Teaching, 10(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.26634/jelt.10.1.16559


[1]. Akkaya, E. (2007). Academic Procrastination among Faculty of Education Students: The Role of Gender, Age, Academic Achievement, Perfectionism and Depression (Unpublished Master's Thesis). Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. Retrieved from https://open.metu. edu.tr/handle/123456789/17388?show=full
[2]. Akpur, U. (2017). Predictive and explanatory relationship model between procrastination, motivation, anxiety, and academic achievement. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 69, 221-240. https://doi.org/10. 14689/ejer.2017.69.12
[3]. Al-Amri, M. (2018). Student-led seminars as an active learning strategy to enhance English as a Foreign Language procrastinating students' achievement. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 15(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.18538/lthe. v15.n1.302
[4]. Albayrak, E. (2014). Üniversite Öğrencilerinde Beş Faktör Kişilik, Akademik Öz-yeterlik, Akademik Kontrol Odağı ve Akademik Erteleme (Unpublished Master's Thesis). Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi, Trabzon, Turkey.
[5]. Andrade, M. S. & Evans, N. W. (2013). Principles and Practices for Response in Second Language Writing: Developing Self-regulated Learners. Routledge.
[6]. Ariely, D. & Wertenbroch, K. (2002). Procrastination, deadlines, and per formance: Self-control by precommitment. Psychological Science, 13(3), 219-224. https://doi.org/10.1111%2F1467-9280.00441
[7]. Aydın, K. S. & Koçak, S. (2016). Üniversite öğrencilerinin zaman yönetimi becerileri ile akademik erteleme düzeylerinin incelenmesi. Uşak Üniversitesi Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(3), 17-38. https://doi.org/10.29065/ usakead.256378
[8]. Aydoğan, H. & Akbarov, A. (2018). A case study of academic procrastination in EFL settings in Turkey. Acra Didactica Napocensia, 11(3-4), 79-88. https://doi.org/10. 24193/adn.11.3-4.6
[9]. Balkıs, M., Duru, E., Buluş, M., & Duru, S. (2006). Üniversite öğrencilerinde akademik erteleme eğilimlerinin çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 7, 57-73. https://doi.org/10.12984/ eed.44122
[10]. Balkıs, M. & Duru, E. (2009). Prevalence of academic procrastination behavior among pre-service teachers, and its relationship with demographics and individual preferences. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 5(1), 18-32.
[11]. Bekleyen, N. (2017). Understanding the academic procrastination attitude of language learners in Turkish universities. Educational Research and Reviews, 12(3), 108- 115.
[12]. Bilge, U Z. U N., & Topkaya, N. (2011). Akademik erteleme ve sınav kaygısı. Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 2(2), 12-19.
[13]. Çelikkaleli, Ö. & Akbay, S. E. (2013). Üniversite öğrencilerinin akademik erteleme davranışı, genel yetkinlik inancı ve sorumluluk inancı. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 14(2), 237-254.
[14]. Çetin, S. (2009). Eğitim fakültesi öğrencilerinin akademik erteleme davranışlarına ilişkin görüşlerinin incelenmesi. Gazi Üniversitesi Endüstriyel Sanatlar Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 25, 1-7.
[15]. Codina, N., Valenzuela, R., Pestana, J. V., & Gonzalez-Conde, J. (2018). Relationships between student procrastination and teaching styles: Autonomysupportive and controlling. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00809
[16]. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research. Pearson Education.
[17]. Davis, D. R. & Abbitt, J. T. (2013). An investigation of the impact of an intervention to reduce academic procrastination using Short Message Service (SMS). Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 12(3), 78-102.
[18]. Day, V., Mensink, D., & O'Sullivan, M. (2000). Patterns of academic procrastination. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 30(2), 120-134. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 10790195.2000.10850090
[19]. Deniz, M. E., Traş, Z., & Aydoğan, D. (2009). An investigation of academic procrastination, locus of control, and emotional intelligence. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 9(2), 623-632.
[20]. Erdoğan, D. (2016). Üniversite Hazırlık Sınıfı Öğrencilerinin Akademik Erteleme Davranışlarının ve Durumluk Kaygı Düzeylerinin Çeşitli Değişkenler Açısından Incelenmesi (Unpublished Master's Thesis). Ufuk Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkey.
[21]. Goda, Y., Yamada, M., Kato, H., Matsuda, T., Saito, Y., & Miyagawa, H. (2015). Procrastination and other behavioural types in e-learning and their relationship with learning outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 72-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2014.11.001
[22]. Goroshit, M. (2018). Academic procrastination and academic performance: An initial basis for intervention. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 131-142. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016. 1198157
[23]. Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., Klingsieck, K. B., & Fries, S. (2018). “I'll stop procrastinating now!” Fostering specific processes of self-regulated learning to reduce academic procrastination. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 143-157. https://doi.org/10.1080/1085 2352.2016.1198166
[24]. He, S. (2017). A multivariate investigation into academic procrastination of university students. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 12-24. https://doi.org/10.42 36/jss.2017.510002
[25]. Hen, M. & Goroshit, M. (2018). Prevention and intervention for academic procrastination in academic communities. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 113-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/1085 2352.2016.1198149
[26]. Kandemir, M. (2015). Reasons for academic procrastination: Self-regulation, academic self-efficacy, life satisfaction and demographics variables. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152, 188-193. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.179
[27]. Karas, D. & Spada, M. M. (2009). Brief cognitivebehavioral coaching for procrastination: A case series. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 2(1), 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521 880802379700
[28]. Kato, S. & Mynard, J. (2016). Reflective Dialogue: Advising in Language Learning. Routledge.
[29]. Kazuki, K. & Kikuchi, R. (2011). Procrastination, prompts, and preferences: Evidence from daily records of selfdirected learning activities. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 40, 929-941. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2011.08.019
[30]. Koshy, V. (2005). Action Research for Improving Practice. Paul Chapman Publishing.
[31]. Lee, E. (2005). The relationship of motivation and flow experience to academic procrastination in university students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 166(1), 5-15. https://doi.org/10.3200/GNTP.166.1.5-15
[32]. Lincoln, Y. S. & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.1002/978140516 5518.wbeosn006
[33]. McCloskey, J. D. (2011). Finally, my Thesis on Academic Procrastination (Unpublished Master's Thesis). The University of Texas at Arlington, Texas, the United States of America.
[34]. Munoz-Olano, J. F. & Hurtado-Parrado, C. (2017). Effects of goal clarification on impulsivity and academic procrastination of college students. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia, 49(3), 173-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rlp. 2017.03.001
[35]. Orpen, C. (1998). The causes and consequences of academic procrastination: A research note. Westminster Studies in Education, 21(1), 73-75. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 0140672980210107
[36]. Otermin-Cristeta, S. & Hautzinger, M. (2018). Developing an intervention to overcome procrastination. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 171-183. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016. 1198169
[37]. Ozer, B.,U. Demir, A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Reducing academic procrastination through a group treatment program: A pilot study. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 31(3), 127-135. http://doi.org/ 10.1007/s10942-013-0165-0
[38]. Özer, A. & Altun, E. (2011). Üniversite öğrencilerinin akademik erteleme nedenleri. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 11(21), 45-72. https:// doi.org/10.21764/efd.06714
[39]. Patrzek, J., Sattler, S., van Veen, F., Grunschel, C., & Fries, S. (2014). Investigating the effect of academic procrastination on the frequency and variety of academic procrastination: A panel study. Studies in Higher Education, 40(6), 1014-1029. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2013. 854765
[40]. Perrin, C. J., Miller, N., Haberlin, A. T., Ivy, J. W., Meindl, J. N., & Neef, N. A. (2011). Measuring and reducing college students' procrastination. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 463-474. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2011. 44-463
[41]. Rabin, L. A., Fogel, J., & Nutter-Upham, K. E. (2011). Academic procrastination in college students: The role of self-reported executive function. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(3), 344-357. https:// doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2010.518597
[42]. Saplavska, J. & Jerkunkova, A. (2018). Academic Procrastination and Anxiety Among Students. In Engineering for Rural Development–International Scientific Conference. (pp. 1192-1197).
[43]. Scent, C. L. & Boes, S. R. (2014). Acceptance and commitment training: A brief intervention to reduce procrastination among college students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 28(2), 144-156. https:// doi.org/10.1080/87568225.2014.883887
[44]. Senécal, C., Koestner, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (1995). Self-regulation and academic procrastination. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135(5), 607-619. https://doi.org/10.10 80/00224545.1995.9712234
[45]. Smith, R. & Rebolledo, P. (2018). A Handbook for Exploratory Action Research. British Council. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.system.2018.10.002
[46]. Steel, P. & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic procrastination: Psychological antecedents revisited. Australian Psychologist, 51, 36-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/ ap.12173
[47]. Strunk, K. K. & Spencer, J. M. (2012). A brief intervention for reducing procrastination. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 16(1), 91-96. https://doi.org/10.312 35/osf.io/ks8r7
[48]. Tuckman, B. W. (1998). Using tests as an incentive to motivate procrastinators to study. The Journal of Experimental Education, 66(2), 141-147. https://doi.org/10. 1080/00220979809601400
[49]. Tuckman, B. W. & Schouwenburg, H. C. (2004). Behavioral interventions for reducing procrastination among university students. In H. C. Schouwenburg, C. H. Lay, T. A. Pychyl, & J. R. Ferrari (Eds.), Counseling the Procrastinator In Academic Settings (pp. 91-103). American Psychological Association. http://doi.org/10. 1037/10808-007
[50]. Yurtseven, N. & Akpur, U. (2018). Perfectionism, anxiety and procrastination as predictors of EFL academic achievement: A mixed methods study. Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 12(2), 96-115.
[51]. Zacks, S. & Hen, M. (2018). Academic interventions for academic procrastination: A review of the literature. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 117-130. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016.11 98154
If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.