. Abdelraheem, A. Y., & Ahmed, A. M. (2018). The impact of using mobile social network applications on students' social-life. International Journal of Instruction, 11(2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.1121a
. Al Musawi, A. S., & Abdelraheem, A. Y. (2004). E-learning at Sultan Qaboos university: Status and future. British Journal of Educational Technology, 35(3), 363-367. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0007-1013.2004.00394.x
. Al-Khanjari, Z., Al-Kindi, K., Al-Zidi, A., & Baghdadi, Y. (2014). M-Learning: The new horizon of learning at SQU. The Journal of Engineering Research [TJER], 11(2), 15-26. https://doi.org/10.24200/tjer.vol11iss2pp15-26
. Al-Senaidi, S., Lin, L., & Poirot, J. (2009). Barriers to adopting technology for teaching and learning in Oman. Computers & Education, 53(3), 575-590. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.03.015
. Balanskat, A., Blamire, R., & Kefala, S. (2007). The ICT impact report: A review of studies of ICT impact on schools in Europe. European Schoolnet, Brussels, Belgium.
. Bhasin, B. (2012): Integration of information and communication technologies in enhancing teaching and learning. Contemporary educational technology, 3(2), 130-140.
. Bingimlas, K.A. (2009). Barriers to the successful integration of ICT in teaching and learning environments: A Review of the literature. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 5(3), 235-245. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/75275
. Budiman, A. B., Rahmawati, R., & Ulfa, R. A. (2018). EFL teacher's belief and practice on integrating ICT in the classroom: A case study on the implementation of SAMR model in teaching reading descriptive text at Ma Assalam, Sukoharjo. Jurnal Penelıtıan Humanıora, 19(2), 39-51.
. Cheok, M. L., Wong, S. L., Ayub, A. F. M., & Mahmud, R. (2016). Understanding teacher educators' beliefs and use of information and communication technologies in teacher training institute. In Envisioning the Future of Online Learning (pp. 11-21). Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0954-9_2
. Chowdhury, S., Arefin, Sh. & Rahaman, M. (2018). Impacts of ICT integration in the higher education classrooms: Bangladesh perspective. Journal of Education and Practice, 9(32). 82-86.
. Drenoyianni, H., & Selwood, I. D. (1998). Conceptions or misconceptions? Primary teachers' perceptions and use of computers in the classroom. Education and information Technologies, 3(2), 87-99. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009630907672
. Dube, B., Nhamo, E. & Magonde, S. (2018). Factors affecting ICT integration in the teaching and learning of physical education in South Africa: A case of Johannesburg East cluster primary schools in the Gauteng Province. International Journal of Sport, Exercise and Health Research, 2(1), 88-92. https://doi.org/ 10.31254/sportmed.2103
. Eickelmann, B., & Vennemann, M. (2017). Teachers’ attitudes and beliefs regarding ICT in teaching and learning in European countries. European Educational Research Journal, 16(6), 733-761. https://doi.org/10. 1177/1474904117725899
. Gobbo, C., & Girardi, M. (2001). Teachers' beliefs and integration of information and communications technology in Italian schools. Journal of Information Techology for Teacher Education, 10(1-2), 63-85. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759390100200103
. Goktas, Y., Gedik, N., & Baydas, O. (2013). Enablers and barriers to the use of ICT in primary schools in Turkey: A comparative study of 2005-2011. Computers & Education, 68, 211-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. compedu.2013.05.002
. Gulbahar, Y., Guven, I. (2008): A survey on ICT usage and the perceptions of social studies teachers in Turkey. Educational Technology and Society, 11 (3), 37-51.
. Habibi, A., Razak, R., Yusop, F., &Mukminin, M. (2019). Preparing future EFL teachers for effective technology integration: What do teacher educators say?, Asian EFL Journal Research Articles, 21(2), 1-30.
. Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2007). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Educational technology research and development, 55(3), 223-252. https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs11423-006-9022-5
. Husain, N. (2011). Integrating ICT in pre-service teacher education: The challenges of change, Journal of Education and Development, 1(2), 156-169.
. Jimoyiannis, A. & Komis, V. (2007). Examining teachers' beliefs about ICT in education: Implications of a teacher preparation programme. Teacher Development, 11(2), 149-173, https://doi.org/10.1080/ 13664530701414779
. Kamaruddin, K., Abdullah, C.A.C., Idris, M.N., & Nawi, M.N.M (2017). Teachers' level of ICT integration in teaching and learning: A survey in Malaysian private preschool. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1891, No. 1, p. 020075). AIP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1063/1. 5005408
. Keengwe, J., Onchwari, G., & Wachira, P. (2008). Computer technology integration and student learning: Barriers and promise. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17(6), 560-565. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10956-008-9123-5
. Kunda, D., Chembe, C., & Mukupa, G. (2018). Factors that influence Zambian higher education lecturer's attitude towards integrating ICTs in teaching and research. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 8(4), 360-384. https://doi.org/10.3926/jotse.338
. Laabidi, Y. & Laabidi, H. (2016). Barriers Affecting Successful Integration of ICT in Moroccan Universities, Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 1(3), 203-214. https://doi.org/10.21462/jeltl.v1i3.29
. Liu, X., & Pange, J. (2015). Early childhood teachers' perceived barriers to ICT integration in teaching: A survey study in Mainland China. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(1), 61-75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692- 014-0025-7
. Marbán, J. M., & Mulenga, E. M. (2019). Pre-service primary teachers' teaching styles and attitudes towards the use of technology in mathematics classrooms. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(2), 253-263. https://doi.org/10.29333/ iejme/5649
. Niederhauser, D. S., & Stoddart, T. (2001). Teachers' instructional perspectives and use of educational software. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(1), 15-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00036-6
. Nikolopoulou, K., & Gialamas, V. (2015). Barriers to the integration of computers in early childhood settings: Teachers' perceptions. Education and Information Technologies, 20(2), 285-301. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10639-013-9281-9
. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of educational research, 62(3), 307-332. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543062003307
. Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (2011). Framework for a set of e-government core indicators. Retreived from https://www.itu.int/ITUD/ ict/partnership/material/Framework_for_a_set_of_EGovernment_ Core_Indicators_Final_rev1.pdf
. Qasem, A.A., & Viswanathappa, G. (2016). Teacher perceptions towards ICT integration: Professional development through blended learning. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 15, 561- 575. https://doi.org/10.28945/3562 Retrieved from http://www.informingscience.org/Publications/3562
. Rubang, T., Pa-alisbo, M. A. C., & Allanic, O. R. P. (2019). Factors influencing the adoption and integration of ICT in teaching among foreign teachers in Thailand. i-manager's Journal of Educational Technology, 16(1), 33-50.https://doi.org/10.26634/jet.16.1.16021
. Salehi, H., & Salehi, Z. (2012). Integration of ICT in language teaching: Challenges and barriers. In rd Proceedings of the 3 International Conference on e- Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning (IC4E, 2012), IPEDR (Vol. 27, pp. 215-219).
. Semerci, A. & Aydin, M.K. (2018). Examining high school teachers' attitudes towards ICT Use in education. International Journal of Progressive Education, 14(2), 93- 105. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2018.139.7
. Seraji, N.E., Ziabari, R.S., & Rokni, S.J.A. (2017). Teacher's attitudes towards educational technology in English language institutes. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(2), 176-185. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel. v7n2p176
. Shaikh, Z., A., & Khoja, S. A. (2013). Higher education in Pakistan: An ICT integration viewpoint. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 5(3), 410- 413. https://doi.org10.7763/IJCTE.2013.V5.720
. Sime, D., & Priestley, M. (2005). Student teachers' first reflections on information and communications technology and classroom learning: implications for initial teacher education. Journal of Computer assisted learning, 21(2), 130-142. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365- 2729.2005.00120.x
. Steel, C., & Levy, M. (2009). Creativity and constraint: Understanding teacher beliefs and the use of LMS technologies. In Proceedings of ascilite Auckland (pp.1013-1022).
. Suliman, A. A. E., Fie, D. Y. G., Raman, M., & Alam, N. (2008, May). Barriers for implementing ICT on higher education in underdeveloped countries "Sudan: Case Study". In CONF-IRM 2008 Proceedings (p. 12). Retreived 5 March 2011 from http://aisel.aisnet.org/confirm2008/12
. Sultan Qaboos University (2018). About SQU. Retreived from, https://www.squ.edu.om/About-SQU/ About-SQU.
. Tomei, L. A. (2005). Taxonomy for the technology domain. USA: Information Science Publishing.
. UNESCO (2002). Information and Communication Technology in Education: A Curriculum for Schools and Programme of Teacher Development. Paris: UNESCO
. University of St Andrews (2012). Information & Communication Technology Strategy 2012-18. Retreived 13 April 2017 from https://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/media/ it-services/documents/ict-strategy.pdf