Microwave Joining of Aluminum Composites: A Non Conventional Manufacturing Method

Rajat Pratap Singh*, Jawalkar C. S**, Jagbir Singh***
*-*** Department of Production and Industrial Engineering, Punjab Engineering College (Deemed to be University), Chandigarh, India.
Periodicity:April - June'2020
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26634/jms.8.1.16134


The applications of microwave energy in material processing are a growing field and new applications are being innovated. It is one of the most sustainable and novel processing methods and has distinct advantages over various conventional material processing methods. With the development of microwave energy processing and selective heating mechanism, it combines microwave energy with conventional sources and balances process variables such as electric power, process flow, processing time, and fixturing requirements. It makes the process more versatile to almost all types of materials and its alloys, non-metals, composite materials like Metal Matrix Composites (MMC), Ceramics Matrix Composites (CMC), and Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC), cermets, fiber reinforced plastics, so on. The present work is based on the development of a sustainable joining methodology for the indigenously developed MMC (Al6061+5% SiC), also termed as Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites (AMMC), through microwave energy processing. The results have revealed that joining “Al6061 + 5% SiC” is successful using “pure Al powder and blumer” with a processing time of 600 seconds. In this study, various joint cross-sections such as simple butt joint, single-V butt joint, double-V butt joints were performed to obtain the best results in terms of joining strength and rigidity.


Microwave Energy, Al-Metal Matrix Composite, Joining, Butt Joint, Hybrid Heating.

How to Cite this Article?

Singh, R. P., Jawalkar, C. S., and Singh, J. (2020). Microwave Joining of Aluminum Composites: A Non Conventional Manufacturing Method. i-manager's Journal on Material Science, 8(1), 9-16. https://doi.org/10.26634/jms.8.1.16134


[1]. Agrawal, D. (2010). Latest global developments in microwave materials processing. Materials Research Innovations, 14(1), 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1179/143307510 X12599329342926
[2]. Bajpai, P. K., Singh, I., & Madaan, J. (2012). Joining of natural fiber reinforced composites using microwave energy: Experimental and finite element study. Materials & Design, 35, 596-602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes. 2011.10.007
[3]. Bao, R., Yi, J., Peng, Y., & Zhang, H. (2004). Joining of WNi by microwave processing and soaking time on microstructure of WC - 8Co. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 23, 372–376.
[4]. Benedetto, A., & Calvi, A. (2013). A pilot study on microwave heating for production and recycling of road pavement materials. Construction and Building Materials, 44, 351-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013. 02.082
[5]. Bian, H. M., Yang, Y., Wang, Y., Tian, W., Jiang, H. F., Hu, Z. J., & Yu, W. M. (2012). Alumina–titania ceramics prepared by microwave sintering and conventional pressure-less sintering. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 525, 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.02.071
[6]. Bruce, R. W., Fliflet, A. W., Huey, H. E., Stephenson, C., & Imam, M. A. (2010). Microwave sintering and melting of titanium powder for low-cost processing. In Key Engineering Materials, 436, 131-140. Trans Tech Publications Ltd. https:// doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.436. 131
[7]. Gaviná Whittaker, A., & Michael P áMingos, D. (1995). Microwave-assisted solid-state reactions involving metal powders. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, 12, 2073-2079.
[8]. Giberson, R. T., & Sanders, M. (2009). The real benefits of microwave-assisted processing go beyond time savings. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 15(S2), 926-927. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1431927609092253
[9]. Gupta, D., & Sharma, A. K. (2011). Investigation on sliding wear performance of WC10Co2Ni cladding developed through microwave irradiation. Wear, 271(9-10), 1642-1650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2010.12.037
[10]. Gupta, D., & Sharma, A. K. (2012). Microstructural characterization of cermet cladding developed through microwave irradiation. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 21(10), 2165-2172. https://doi.org/10. 1007/s11665-012-0142-2
[11]. Gupta, D., Sharma, A. K. (2005). Joining of different metal (Al, Mg) through Microwave Hybrid Heating, In Supplemental Proceedings of Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (pp. 263-270). Hoboken, NJ, USA. John Wiley & Sons.
[12]. Keyson, D., Volanti, D. P., Cavalcante, L. S., Simoes, A. Z., Souza, I. A., Vasconcelos, J. S., ... & Longo, E. (2007). Domestic microwave oven adapted for fast heat treatment of Ba0. 5Sr0. 5 (Ti0. 8Sn0. 2) O3 powders. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 189(1-3), 316-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.02.001
[13]. Ku, H. S., Siores, E., & Ball, J. A. R. (2001). Review—microwave processing of materials: Part I. The Honking Institution of Engineers Transactions, 8, 31–37.
[14]. Lauf, R. J., Bible, D. W., Johnson, A. C., & Everleigh, C. A. (1993). Two to 18 GHz broadband microwave heating systems. Microwave Journal, 36(11), 24-30.
[15]. Menéndez, J. A., Arenillas, A., Fidalgo, B., Fernández, Y., Zubizarreta, L., Calvo, E. G., & Bermúdez, J. M. (2010). Microwave heating processes involving carbon materials. Fuel Processing Technology, 91(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.fuproc.2009.08.021
[16]. Mishra, R. R., & Sharma, A. K. (2016). A review of research trends in microwave processing of metal-based materials and opportunities in microwave metal casting. Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 41(3), 217-255. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408436.2016. 1142421
[17]. Mondal, A., Agrawal, D., & Upadhyaya, A. (2008). Microwave heating of pure copper powder with different particle size and porosity. In Global congress on microwave energy application, Japan (pp. 517-520).
[18]. Padmavathi, C., Joshi, G., Upadhyaya, A., & Agrawal, D. (2008). Effect of sintering temperature, heating mode and graphite addition on the corrosion response of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, 61(2-3), 239-243. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s12666-008-0022-5
[19]. Padmavathi, C., Upadhyaya, A., & Agrawal, D. (2007). Corrosion behavior of microwave-sintered austenitic stainless steel composites. Scripta Materialia, 57(7), 651-654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2007. 06.007
[20]. Sharma, A. K., & Gupta, D. (2012). On microstructure and flexural strength of metal–ceramic composite cladding developed through microwave heating. Applied Surface Science, 258(15), 5583-5592. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.apsusc.2012.02.019
[21]. Singh, S., Gupta, D., Jain, V., & Sharma, A. K. (2015). Microwave processing of materials and applications in manufacturing industries: A review. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 30(1), 1-29. https://doi.org/10. 1080/10426914.2014.952028
[22]. Spencer, P. L. (1950). Method of Treating Foodstuffs. Patent No. US2495429A. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
[23]. Srinath, M. S., Sharma, A. K., & Kumar, P. (2011). A new approach to joining of bulk copper using microwave energy. Materials & Design, 32(5), 2685-2694. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.01.023
[24]. Thostenson, E. T., & Chou, T. W. (1999). Microwave processing: fundamentals and applications. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 30(9), 1055- 1071. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-835X(99)00020-2
[25]. Zafar, S., & Sharma, A. K. (2014). Development and characterisations of WC–12Co microwave clad. Materials Characterization, 96, 241-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. matchar.2014.08.015
[26]. Zhou, J., Shi, C., Mei, B., Yuan, R., & Fu, Z. (2003). Research on the technology and the mechanical properties of the microwave processing of polymer. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 137(1-3), 156- 158. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(02)01082-8
If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.