Empowerment Among Women Nurses: a Conceptual Review of Literature

Saleema A. Gulzar*, Rozina Karmaliani**, Ahmad Ali Shah***
*Assistant Professor, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
** Professor, School of Nursing & Midwifery, and Department of Community Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
*** School of Nursing & Midwifery, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
**** Associate Librarian, Faculty of Health Sciences Library, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
Periodicity:November - January'2017
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26634/jnur.6.4.10341


Nurses play a significant role in health promotion and maintenance of individuals, families, and communities at large. It is evident that the demand for nurses has increased and will further increase in years to come. It is generally accepted that nursing as a career is valued by society in terms of job security, mobility, and career. Traditionally, the image of nursing as a profession is one of care, compassion, and nurture. However, the image of nursing still suffers from a low social image and status, particularly in the third world and developing countries like Pakistan. This is due to severe sociocultural conditions and unrecognized status of women, which hinders the progress in nursing. Nurses working in various capacities suffer from lack of competency and confidence, due to which their professionalism and credibility suffer which may owe to the lack of empowerment at the workplace. Therefore, nursing leaders face numerous challenges in uplifting the image of nurses in the country. It is assumed that empowerment is essential so that they are able to overcome hurdles towards their professional careers. Hence, this paper is an attempt to describe the notion of empowerment in the light of literature, which is critical of the nursing profession and nurses in the context of Pakistan.



Women Empowerment, Women Status, Nursing Empowerment

How to Cite this Article?

Gulzar, S.A., Karmaliani, R., Noorani, S.S., Shah, A.A. (2017). Empowerment Among Women Nurses: a Conceptual Review of Literature. i-manager’s Journal on Nursing, 6(4), 20-29. https://doi.org/10.26634/jnur.6.4.10341


[1]. Abraham, B. (2013). Women Nurses and the Notion of their “Empowerment”. Retrieved from: http://www.cds.ac.in/ krpcds/publication/downloads/88.pdf
[2]. Ahmed, D. (2012). Honor or Disgrace? A Glimpse in the Nursing Community of Pakistan. Retrieved from http://www.nursetogether.com/honor-or-disgraceglimpse- nursing-community-pakistan#sthash.tpo5njwu. dpuf
[3]. Asif, M., Ayyub, S., & Bashir, M. K. (2014). “Relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational commitment: Mediating effect of psychological empowerment ”. AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol.1635, pp.703-707.
[4]. Bent, K.N. (2003). “The people know what they want: An empowerment process of sustainable, ecological community health”. Advances in Nursing Sciences, Vol.26, No.3, pp.215-226.
[5]. Cicolini, G., Gomparcini, D., & Simonett, I. V. (2013). “Workplace empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction: A systematic literature review ”. Journal of Nursing Management, pp.1-15.
[6]. Foucault, M. (1978). The Archaeology of Knowledge. Tavistock, London.
[7]. Gulzar, S., Karmaliani, R., Sulaiman, N., & Todai, Q. (2015). “Are We Empowered? A Qualitative Approach to unfold the Experiences of Female Nurses In Pakistan”. Science Journal of Medicine and Clinical Trials, Vol.2015, Article ID. sjmct-260, pp.1-9.
[8]. Hagbaghery, M. A., Salsali, M., & Ahmadi, F. (2004). “A qualitative study of Iranian nurses understanding and experiences of professional power”. Human Resources for Health, Vol.2, pp.1478-1491.
[9]. Hajbaghery, M. A., & Salsali, M. A. (2005). “A Model for empowerment of nursing in Iran”. BMC Health Services Research, Vol.5, No.24. pp.24.
[10]. Hemani, H. (2003). History of Nursing in Pakistan: A Struggle for Professional Recognition. Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Alberta, Canada.
[11]. Jardin, KED. (2001). “Political involvement in nursing education and empowerment ”. Association of PeriOperative Registered Nurses Journal, Vol.74, pp.468- 475.
[12]. Kabeer, N. (2005). “Gender equality and women's empowerment: A critical analysis of the third millennium development goal”. Gender & Development, Vol.13, No.1, pp.13-24.
[13]. Kane-Urrabazo, C. (2006). “Management's role in shaping organizational culture”. J. Nurs. Manag., Vol.14, No.3, pp.188-194.
[14]. Krause, M. (2008). Women in Civil Society: The State, Islamism and Networks in the UAE. Palgrave McMillan.
[15]. Luttrell, C., Quiroz S., Scrutton, C., & Bird K. (2009). Understanding and Operationalising Empowerment. Overseas Development Institute. (Working paper 308). Retrieved from http://www.poverty-wellbeing.net/en/Home/ Empowerment/More_on_ Empowerment
[16]. Malik, S., & Courtney, K. (2011). “Higher education and women's empowerment in Pakistan”. Gender and Education, Vol.23, No.1, pp.29-45.
[17]. Manojlovich, M. (2007). “Power and Empowerment in Nursing: Looking Backward to Inform the Future”. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Vol.12, No.1.
[18]. Muhammad, S.D., Shaheen, G., Naqvi, S.I.H., & Zehra, S. (2012). “ Women empowerment and microfinance: A case study of Pakistan”. African Journal of Business Management, Vol.6, No.22, pp.6497-6503.
[19]. Naz, A. M. H., Daraz, U., Khan, W., Khan, T., Salman, M., & Muhamma, D. (2013). “A Paradigm Shift in Women's Movement and Gender Reforms in Pakistan (A Historical Overview)”. Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research, Vol.13, pp.20-26.
[20]. Noreen, G. and Khalid, H. (2012). “Gender Empowerment through Women's Higher Education: Opportunities and Possibilities”. Journal of Research and Reflections in Education, Vol.6, No.1, pp.63-76.
[21]. Ott, J., & Ross, C. (2014). “The Journey towards shared Governance: The lived experience of nurse managers and staff nurses”. Journal of Nursing Management, Vol.22, pp.761-768.
[22]. Rahman, M., Hoque, A. & Makinoda, S. (2011). “Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Is Women Empowerment a Reducing Factor? A Study from a National Bangladeshi Sample”. Journal of Family Violence, Vol.26, pp.411-420.
[23]. Robert, S.J. (1983). “Oppressed group behavior: Implications for nursing”. Advances in Nursing Science, Vol.5, No.4, pp.21-30.
[24]. Samuel. P. S., Rillotta. F. & Brown. I. (2012). “The development of family quality of life concepts and measures”. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, Vol.56, pp.1-16.
[25]. Teshome, E., Zenebe, M., Metaferia, H., & Biadgilign, S. (2012). “The Role of Self-Help Voluntary Associations for Women Empowerment and Social Capital: The Experience of Women's Iddirs (Burial Societies) in Ethiopia”. Journal of Community Health, Vol.37, No.3, pp.706-714.
[26]. Wong, C.A. & Laschinger, H.K.S. (2013). “Authentic leadership, performance, and job satisfaction: The mediating role of empowerment”. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol.69, No.4, pp.947-959.
[27]. Wong, N. T., Zimmerman, M. A., & Parker, E. A. (2010). “A typology of youth participation and empowerment for child and adolescent health promotion”. American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol.46, pp.100-114.
[28]. Yamashita, K. (2004). Importance of Developing Multicultural Diversity Training Program in Hotel Industry in Minneapotis Area. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wisconsin- Stout).
[29]. Sandra Regan. S, L. Heather, & Wong. C. (2016). “The influence of empowerment, authentic leadership, and professional practice environments on nurses' perceived interprofessional collaboration”. The Journal of Nursing Management, Vol.24, No.1, pp.54-61.
If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.