The Roles Of Artificial Intelligence In Education: Current Progress And Future Prospects

*, **
Rand 1700 Main St ,Santa Monica ,CA 90407-2138
DOI : https://doi.org/

Abstract

This paper summarizes the current applications of ideas from artificial intelligence (AI) to education. It then used that summary to project various future applications of AI — and advanced technology in general — to education. As well as highlighting problems that will confront the wide-scale implementation of these technologies in the classroom.

Keywords

Classroom, Technology, Artificial Intelligence.

How to Cite this Article?

David McArthur, Matthew Lewis and Miriam Bishary (2005). The Roles Of Artificial Intelligence In Education: Current Progress And Future Prospects, i-manager’s Journal of Educational Technology, 1(4), Jan-Mar 2005, Print ISSN: 0973-0559, E-ISSN: 2230-7125, pp. 42-80.

References

[1].Anderson, J.R. (1983). The Architecture cf Cagnltlan. CambrldgeMA:HarvardUniversifyPress
[2].Anderson, J.R., Boyle, D.F, and Reiser, B.J. (1985). IntelligentTutaring Systems, ScienceVal. 228,pp. 456-462.
[3].Anderson, J.R., Boyle, D.F., Farrell, R, and Reiser, B.J. (1987). Cagnltive principles In the design af design af computer tutors. In P Marrls(Ed.), Madellng Cagnltlan, Wiley.
[4].Anderson, J., Boyle, D .F., and Yost, G. (1985). The geametry tutor. Proceedings af the Ninth International Joint CanferenceanArtific!aI Intelligence.
[5].Anderson, J. R., and Skwarecki, E. (1986).The automated tutoring af Intraductary computer programming Cammunlcafiansaf theACM, Val. 29, 9, 842-849.
[6].Ausubel, D. R (1961).Learning by discovery: Ratlanale and mystique. Association af Secondary Schaal Principals, 45, 18-58.
[7].Berman, S. and McLaughlin, M. (1978). Federal Programs Suppartlng Educational Change.' Val. VIII, implementing and Sustaining Innavatlans, The RAND Carparatlan, R- 1589/8-HEW
[8].Bevis, E, and Kass, A. (1991).Teaching by Means cf Scala! simulation In Praceedlngs af the Internal/anal Conference an theLearning Sciences, Evanston,pp. 45-51.
[9].Bloom, B. S. (1984). The 2 Sigma Problem.' The Search far Methads cf Group Ins\ruction as Effective as One-fa-One Tutoring EducafianalResearcher, 13, 6, June/JuIy
[10].sonar, J. (1991). Interface architectures far Intelligent tutoring systems. In H. Burns, J. Par/elf, & C. Luckhardt Redfleld (Eds.), Intelligent Tutorlng Systems: Evalut!ans In Design. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[11].Brown, J. S., and Burton, R. R. (I 97B). D/agnast!c madels far procedural bugs in basic mathematical skills. Cagnifive Science, 2, 155-192.
[12].Brown, J. S., Burton, R. R., and de moor, J. (1982). Pedagaglcal, natural language and knaw\edge engineering and pedagogical techniques In SOPHIE \, I\, and III. In D. H. S/eeman & J. S. Brawn (Eds.), Intelligent TularingSystems(pp. 227-282}. NewYark: Academic Press.
[13].Brown, J.S. and Duguid, R (1993). Stolen knowledge. EducatlanalTechnalagy,March, 1993. Brown, S. I. and Walter, M. I. (1990). Problem Paslng LawrenceErlbaum..HIIIsdaIeNJ.
[14].Bruneau, J. Chambreuil, A., Chambreuil, M, Chanier, M, Dunn, R Latin and Nehemie, R (1991). Cognitive science, artificial Intelligence, new technalagies.' Haw to cooperate far a computer-assisted learning to read system. In Proceedings af the International Conference an the Learning Sciences, Evanston, II.
[15].Bruner, J. S. (1961). The act cf discovery Harvard EducatianalRevlew, 31(1), 21-32.
[16].Burns, B., Gray, W D., Radlinkski, E. R. (1991). Tuning the ideal student madel: rewards and intelligent editing af ITS madels. In Proceedings af the International Conference an the Learning Sciences, Evanston, II.
[17].Burton, R. R., and Brown, J. S. (1982). An investigation af computer caach!ng In D. H. Sleeman & J. S. Brawn (Eds.), Intelligent Tutoring Systems (pp. 79-98). New Yark: AcademicPress.
[18].Clancey, WJ. (1987). Knowledge-based tutoring The GUiDON program Cambrldge,MA:The MIT Press.
[19].Cohen, D. K. C I 9B8). Educational technology and schaal organization In R. S. N\ckersan & P P Zadhlates (Eds.), Technology In Educatian.' Looking Taward 2020 (pp. 231- 264). Hillsdale,NJ: Er\baum.
[20].Collins, A. ( I 991). The role af technology In restructuring schaals. Phi DelfaKappan, September, 28-36.
[21].Collins, A., and Brown J.S. (1987). The computer as a tool far learning through reflection. In H. Mandi and A. Lesgald (Eds.), Learning issues far intelligent tutoring systems. New York:Springer-Verlag
[22].Collins, A., J. S. Brown, and S. E. Newman (1988). Cagnltive apprentlceshlp.' Teaching the craft af reading, writing, and mathematics. In L.B. Resnlck(Ed.), Cagnltian and Instructian.' Issues and Agendas. Hillsdale NJ: LawrenceErlbaum.
[23].Cooper, E. W (1991). An architecture far apprenticeship: Collaboration with an intelligent tutoring system far qualitative electrical troubleshooting In Proceedings af the International Conference an the Learning Sciences, Evanston, II.
[24].Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and machines. New Yark: TeachersCallegePress.
[25].Cuban, L. (1993). Computers meet the classroom; Classroom wins. Education Week November 11, pp26-27. Davis, R. ( I 991). Canstructiv!st views an the teaching and learning af mathematics, Journal far Research In Mathematics Education, Managraph 4, National Cauncll afTeachersaf Mathematics.
[26].deKieer, J. and Brown, J. S. (1984). A physics based on conf\uences. Artificial Intelllgence, 24, pp 7-83.
[27].Du, Z., and McCalla, G. (1991). CBMIP - A case-based mathematlcs Instructlonal planner. In Proceedlngs of the Internatlonai Conference on the Leamlng Sclences, Evanston,li.
[28].Elsom-Cook, M., (ed.) (1990). Gu\ded D\scovery Tutoring A Framework for \CAI Research. London.. Paul Chapman Publishing
[29].Feifer, R. G. (1989). An intelligent tutoring system approach to teaching people how to learn. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Conference Of the CognlHve Science SocleIy AnnArbOr, Michigan.
[30].Feifer, R. and Soclof, M. (1991). Knowledge-based tutoring systems: Changing the focus from learner modellng to teach\ng. In Proceedlngs of the International Conferenceon theLeamlng Sclences, Evanston, II.
[31].Fischer, G. (1991). Supporting Leaming on Demand with Design Environments. Proceedlngs of the Internatlonai Conference on the Leamlng Sclences, Evanston, pp. 165-171.
[32].Fischer, G., Lemke, A., and Schwab, T. (1985). Know/edge-based He\p Systems. Human Factors In Computlng Systems, CH\ 1985 Conference Proceedlngs, SanFranclsco, pp. 161-167, NewYork: ACM.
[33].Fischer, G., Lemke, A., and McCall, R. (1990). Towards a system archltecture supporfing contextuallzed learnlng Proceedlngs of AAA\-90, pp. 420-425, Cambridge MA,. AAA\ Press/MIT Press.
[34].Foss, C. (1987). Acquisition of error management sk\\Is. Third Internatlonai Conference on Artificial Intelllgence and Educafion, pp. 27.
[35].Forbus, K (1984). Qua\ifaflve process theory Artificial Intelllgence, 24, pp85-168.
[36].Forbus, K. (1991). Towards tutor compllers.' Se\f- explanatory slmulaHons as an enabling technology In Proceedings of the internaHonal Conference on the Learning Sclences, Evanston, II.
[37].Frederiksen, C., Donin, J., DeCary, M., and Edmond, B. (1991). Discourse-based second-ianguage iearnlng envlronments. In Proceedings of the International Conferenceon IheLearnlng Sclences, Evanston, li,
[38].Frederiksen, J., White, B, Collins, A. Eggan, G. (1988). Intelllgent Tutoring systems for electronlc troubleshootlng In J. Psotka, D. Massey, and S. Mutter. Intelligent Tutoring Systems..LessonsLearned HIIIsdaIeNJ:LawrenceEribaum.
[39].Geerfz, C. (1973).The\nterpretation of Cultures. NewYork: Basic Books.
[39].Geerfz, C. (1973).The\nterpretation of Cultures. NewYork: Basic Books.
[41].Morel, I. and Report, S. (1990). Software Deslgn as a Learning Environment Interactive Learning Environments, 1(1), 1-33.
[42].Hunter, B. (1993). Internetworklng.. Coordlnatlng technoiogy for systemic reform. Communlcatlons of the ACM, 36(5), pp. 42-46.
[43].Kass, A. (1990).Are electronlc tutors reaiiy what we wantfo build? American Associatlon for ArtIfIcIaI Intelllgence Spring Symposlum on Knowledge-based Environments for Learning andTeachlng, Stanford Unlversify.
[44].Kass, A. and Guralnick, D. (1991). Env\ronments for Incidental Learning: Taking Road Trips Instead of Memorlzlng State Capitals. In Proceedlngs of the Internat\onal Conference on the Leamlng Sciences, Evanston, p. 258-264}.
[45].Lakatos, I. (1976) Proofs and Refutatlons. New York: CambrldgeUnlversltyPress.
[46].Larkin, J., H., McDermott, J., Simon, D. R, and Simon, H. A. (1980). Expert and novlce performance In soivlng physics problems. Science, 208 1335-1342.
[47].Lave, J. (1988). Cognltlon In PracHce, Cambridge, CambrldgeUniversifyPress.
[48].Lawrence, E. (1970). The Origins and Growth of Modern Education, Balflmore, MD: Penguin Books.
[49].Leinhardt, G. (1989). Math iessons: A contrast of nov\ce and expert competence. Journal for Research in MathematlcsEducatlon, 20(1}, 52-75.
[50].Lewis, M, Bishay, M., McArfhur, D. (1993). SupporHng DiscoveryLearnlnglnMathematlcs:DeslgnandAnalyslsof an Exploration Envlronment and inquiry Actlvltles. SubmiffedtolnstructlonalSclence.
[51].Lewis, M., Bishoy, M., and McArfhur, D. (1993b). The Macrostructure and Mlcrostructure of Inquiry Actlvltles.. Evidence from Students using a Mlcroworld for Malhematlcal D\scovery Proceedlngs of the World Conference on Artificial Intelllgence and Education, Edinburgh,August.
[52].Lewis, M., McArfhur, D., Bishay, M., and Chou, J. (1992). Object-Orlented Mlcroworids for Leamlng Mathematlcs through Inquiry: Pre\\mlnary Results and Directions. Proceedlngs of the East-West Conference on Emerglng ComputerTechnoioglesln Education, Moscow April.
[53]Lewis, M. W, McArfhur, D., Stosz, C., ond Zmuidzinos, M. (1990). D\scovery-based Tutorlng in mathematics. Paper presented at the Amen.can Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Symposium on Knowledge-based Environments for Learning and Teaching, Stanford Unlversity March.
[54].Lesgold, A. M., Lojoie, S. R, Bunzo, M., ond Eggon, G. (1993). SHERLOCK' A coached practice env\ronment for an electronics troubleshootlng job.In J. Larkln, R. Chabay & C. Scheftlc (Eds.}, Computer assisted instructlon and intelligent tutorlng systems: Establishing communication and collaboration. Hillsdale, NJ.' Lawrence Erlbaum Assoclates.
[55]Lesgold, A., Eggon, G., Kotz, S., ond Roo, G. (in press) Posslbllities for Assessment Using Computer-Based Apprenticeship Environments. To appear In W Regian and V Shute {Eds.}, Cognif\ve approaches to automated Instructlon. HIlIsdaIe, NJ.' Erlbaum.
[56]Lester, J. C. ond Porter, B. W (1991). A student-sensitive discourse generafor In Proceedings of the Intemational Conference on the Learning Sciences, Evanston, l1.
[57]London, B., and Cloncey, W J. (1982). P/an recognifion strategies in student modeling: Prediction and descriptlon. In Proceedlngs of the 1982 Natlonal Conference on Artificiallntelllgence,(pp. 335-338).
[58].Motz, M. (1982). Towards a process model for high school algebra errors, In D. H. Sleeman & J. S. Brown (Eds.}, lntelllgentTutoringSystemsNewYork:AcademicPress.
[59].McArfhur, D. ond Lewis, M. (1991). Overview of object- orlented microworlds for learning mathematics through Inquiry N-3242-NSF, RAND Corporation, Santa Mon\ca, CA.
[60].McArfhur, D. and Lewis, M. (1991b). Overview of object- orlented microworlds for learning mathematics through Inquiry Proceedings of the International Conference on the Learning Sciences, Evanston, I1.
[61].McArfhur, D., Lewis, M. W , Ormseth, T., Robyn, A., Stosz, C., ond Voreck, D. (1989). A/gebraic thinking tools: Supports for modellng situations and solving problems in kids' worlds. Technology and Learning, 3(2).
[62].McArfhur, D., Robyn, A., Lewis, M. ond Bishay, M. (1992). Designing new curricula for mathemat\cs: A case-study of computer-based statistics In high school. RAND WD-5930-ED.
[63].McArfhur, D., ond 51052, C. (1990). An intelligent tufor for basic algebra. R-3811-NSE RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.
[64].McArthur, D., Sfosz, C., Motto, J., Peter, 0., ond Burdorf, C. (1988). Skll/-orlented tasksequencing In an intelligent tutor for basic algebra. lnstructlonalSclence, 17, 281-307.
[65].McArthur, D., Stosz, C., ond Zmuidzinos, M. (1990). Tutoring techniques in algebra. Cognltion and Instruction, 7(3), 197-244.
[66].MerriH, D. C., Reiser, B. J., Romney, M., ond Tofton, J. G. (1992). Effective tutorlng techniques: A compar\son of human tutors and Intelligent tutoring systems. The Joumal of the Learning Sciences, 2{3}, 277-306
[67].Notional Council of Teochers of Mothemotics. (1989). Curriculum and Evaluat\on Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA.' NCTM.
[68].Notional Council of Teochers of Mothemotics. (1991). Professlonal Standards for Teaching Mathematics. Reston, VA.' NCTM.
[69].Newell, A., ond Simon, H.A. (1972). Human Problem Solvlng Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[70].Ohlsson, S. (1986). Some principles of intelligent tutor\ng InstructlonalScience, 14,293-326.
[71].Ohlsson, S. (1991).System hacking meets learning theory: Reflections on the goals and standards of research In artificial intelligence and educafion. Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Educafion, 2 {3}, 5-18.
[72].OSTP (1992). Grand Challenges: High Performance Computlng and Communlcatlons. The Commiffee on Physical, Mathematical, and Engineering Sciences, Federal Coordinating Councll for Science, Engineering, and Technology Executive Office of the Pres\dent, Washington, D.C.
[73].Popert, S. (1980). Mindstorms.' Children, Computers and Powerfulldeas. Basic Books.' NewYork.
[74].Popert, S. (1993).The Childrens' Machine NewYork: Basic Books.
[75].Papert, S. ond Morel I. (1991). Constructionism, Norwood NJ: AblexPublishing
[76].Peo, R. (1987). Cogn\tive technolog\es for mathematics educaflon. In Schoenfeld, A.H (Ed,}, CognlHve Science and Mathematics Education, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[77].Peitgen, H., Jurgens, H, ond D. Saupe (1991). Fractals for the Classroom. NewYork: Springer-Verlag. Polyo, G. (1962). Mathematical D\scovery NewYork: John Wiley and Sons.
[78].Psotka, J, Massey, D., and Mutter, S. (1988). /nteillgent Tutoring Systems.. Lessons Learned. Hllisdaie NJ.' LawrenceErlbaum.
[79].Putnam, R.T. (1987). Structuring and adjusting content for students: A study of live and simulated tutoring of addition, American Educational Research Journal, 24 (1}, pp. 13- 48,
[80].Raghavan, K., Schultz, J., Glaser, R., and Schauble, L. (1989). A computer coach for inquiry skills. Pittsburgh, PA.' Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh.
[81].Resnick, L. B. (1987). Education and Learning to Think. Washington D. C.: National Academy Press.
[82.Resnick, M. (1991). Overcoming the centralized mindset: Towards an understanding of emergent phenomena. in S. Papert and i. Harel (Eds.), Constructionism, Norwood NJ.. AblexPubiishing
[83].Robyn, A., Stasz, C., Ormseth, T., and McArthur, D. (1989). /mp/ementing computer-assisted instruction In first-year algebra classes. Paper presented at the American Educatlon Research Association National Conference, San Francisco, April.
[84].Robyn, A., Stasz, C., McArthur, D., Ormseth, T., and Lewis, M. W (1992). /mpiementing a novel computer- relatedalgebracourse.RANDN-3326-NSF/RC.
[85].Roschelie, J. (in press). Learning by coilaboration.. Convergent conceptual change. Journal of the LearningSclences.
[86].Scardamaiia, M, and Bereiter, C. (1993). Technologies for knowledge-building discourse. Communications of theACM 36(5}, pp. 37-41.
[87].Schank, R. and Edeison, D. (1990). A ro/e for Al in education,` Using technoiogy to reshape education. Journal of Artificial Inteiligence in Educatlon, 1(2), 3-20.
[88].Schoenfeid, A.H. (1985). Mathematical Probiem Soiving NewYork: Academic Press. Schofield, J. W., Evans-Rhodes, D, and Huber, B. R. (1990). Artificial Intelligence in the Classroom.' The impact of a Computer-based Tutor on Teachers and Students, Social Science Computer Review, 8(1}, 24-41.
[89].Shute, V., and Bonar, J. (1988). Inte/iigent tutoring systems for scientlfic Inquiry skiils. Unpublished manuscriptLRDC.
[90].Shute, V., and Glaser, R. (1990). Large-scale evaluation of an inteliigent discovery world: SMiTHTOWN. Interactive Learnlng Environments, 1, 51-77.
[91]Shute, V., Glaser, R., and Raghavan, K. (1988). inference and dlscovery in an experimental laboratory. Tech. Rep. LRDC.
[92]Sleeman, D.H., and Smith M.J. (1981). Modeiing Studenf s Problem Soiving, Artificial intelligence, 16, pp. 171-188.
[93]Sleeman, D. and Brown, J. S. (1982). Inteiligent Tutoring Systems NewYork: Academic Press.
[94].Steen, L. A. (1988). The science of patferns. Sclence, 240, 611-616.
[95].Steen, L. A. (1990). On the Shouiders of Giants, Washlngton DC: National Academy Press.
[96]Swanson, J. (1990). The effectiveness of tutorial strategies.' An experimental evaiuation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston MA, April.
[97].Wenger, E. (1987). Artificial intelligence and Tutoring Systems. Los Altos CA.' Morgan and Kaufmann.
[98].White, B.Y., and Frederiksen, J.R. (1986). Qua/itative models and intelligent learning environments. In Lawler, R., & Yazdani, M. (Eds.} (1987}. Artificial Intelligence and Education.' Learning Environments and Inteiligent Tutoring Systems. Norwood NJ: Abiex.
[99].Woolf, B. (1991). Representing, acquiring, and reasoning about tutoring knowledge. in H. Burns, J. Parlett, & C. Luckhardt Redfield (Eds.}, intelllgent Tutoring Systems.' Evolutions In Design. Hillsdale NJ.' Lawrence Eribaum.
[100]Zuboff, S. (1988). in the Age of the Smart Machine.' The Future of Workand Power, Basic Books.
If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article
Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

USD EUR INR
Print 35 35 200
Online 35 35 200
Print & Online 35 35 400