Mindfulness Behavior and its Effects on Anxiety

Mary G. Mayorga*, Sabina De Vries**, 0***
* Associate Professor, Department of Counseling, Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
** Assistant Professor and Program Coordinator, Department of Counseling, Texas A&M University, San Antonio, USA.
*** Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling, Texas A&M University, Kingsville, USA.
Periodicity:February - April'2016
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26634/jpsy.9.4.5968


A quasi experimental study was conducted at a South West State University counseling program to investigate if using meditation techniques would lower levels of anxiety and create mindfulness attention awareness among counseling students enrolled in a counseling skills course, taught in a masters-level counseling program. A total of 29 students were recruited from three counseling skills courses, two of which were included in the treatment condition and one was designated as the control condition. Students in the treatment condition were instructed in one pointed breathing meditation and it was practiced for five minutes at the beginning of each class. The results indicated that, there was a significant reduction in anxiety in the treatment group; however, no significant changes in mindfulness were noted.


Mindfulness, Meditation, Anxiety, Stress, Mindfulness Awareness.

How to Cite this Article?

Mayorga, M. G., Mayorga, Vries, S. D., and Wardle, E. A. (2016). Mindfulness Behavior and its Effects on Anxiety. i-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 9(4), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.26634/jpsy.9.4.5968


[1]. Arkowitz, H., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2014). “Is mindfulness good medicine?”. Scientific American Mind, Vol. 25, No. 5. Retrieved from. from http://www.scientificamerican. com/article/is mindfulness-good0medicine.
[2]. Baer, R. A. (2003). “Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review”. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 125-3. doi:10.1093/clipsy/bpg015
[3]. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Parody, J., Segal, Z. V.,Abbey, S., Speca, M., Velting, D., & Devins, G. (2004). “Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition”. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 230-24. doi: 10. 1093/clipsy/bph077
[4]. Boudette, R., Gandhi, S., Nobleza, D., Rosenfeld, V., & Rubinstein, L. (2010). “The mind-body team: Mindfulness in college health”. Symposium conducted at the meeting of American College Health Association.
[5]. Brown, A. P., Marquis, A., & Guiffrida, D. A. (2013). “Mindfulness-based interventions in counseling”. Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 91, pp. 96-104.
[6]. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). “The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 84, pp. 822-848.
[7]. Christopher, J. C., Chrisman, J. A., Trotter- Mathison, M. J., Schure, M. B., Dahlen, P., & Christopher, S. B. (2011). “Perceptions of the long-term influence of mindfulness training on counselors and psychotherapists: A qualitative inquiry”. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 318-349. doi: 10.1177/0022167810381471. Retrieved from http://jhp.sagepubl.com
[8]. Dimidjian, S., & Linehan, M. M. (2003). “Defining an agenda for future research on the clinical application of mindfulness practice”. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, Vol. 10(2), pp. 166-171. doi: 10.1093/clipsy/ bpg019
[9]. Germer, C. K. (2005). “Teaching mindfulness in therapy”. In C. K. Germer, R. D. Siegel, & P. R. Fulton (Eds), Mindfulness and Psychotherapy, NewYork: Guilford Press. pp. 113-119.
[10]. Hooker, K. E., & Fodor, I. E. (2008). “Teaching mindfulness to children”. Gestalt Review, Vol. 12(1), pp. 75-91.
[11]. Holland, E. (2015). “Can mindfulness” help students do better in school?”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/can-mindfulness-helpstudents- do-better-in-school
[12]. Jacobs, S. J., & Blustein, D. L. (2008). “Mindfulness as a coping mechanism for employment uncertainty”. The Career Development Quarterly, Vol. 57, pp.174-180.
[13]. JAMA Internal Medicine, (2014). Mindfulness meditation helps with mild anxiety and depression, finds review. Retrieved from http://www.science20.com/news_ articles.
[14]. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). “Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future”. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, Vol. 10, pp. 144-156.
[15]. Murphy, M. C. (2006). “Taming the anxious mind: An 8- week mindfulness meditation group at a university counseling center”. Journals of College Student Psychotherapy, Vol. 21(2), pp. 5-13, doi:10.1300/J035v21n02_03. Retrieved from http://jcsp.haworthpress.com
[16]. Rothaupt, J. W., & Morgan, M. M. (2007). “Counselors' and counselor educators' practice of mindfulness: A qualitative inquiry”. Counseling and Values, Vol. 52, pp. 40-54.
[17]. Schwarze, M. J. & Gerler, E. R. (2015). “Using mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in individual counseling to reduce stress and increase mindfulness: An exploratory study with nursing students”. The Professional Counselor, Vol. 5(1), pp. 39-52. Retrieved from http://tpcjournal.nbcc.org
[18]. Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). “Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students”. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 581-599.
[19]. Sharma, M. P., Mao, A., & Sudhir, P. M. (2012). “Mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy in patients with anxiety disorders: a case series”. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 263-269. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.106026
[20]. Tadlock-Marlo, R. L. (2011). “Making minds matter: Infusing mindfulness and school counseling”. Faculty Research & Creative Activity. Paper 29. Retrieved from http://thekeep.eiu.edu.
[21]. Vollestad, J., Nielsen, M. B., & Nielsen, G. H. (2012). “Mindfulness-and acceptance-based interventions for anxiety disorders: A systematic review and metaanalysis”. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 51, pp. 239-260. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8260.2011.02024.x. Retrieved from www.wileyonlinelibrary.com
[22]. Welwood, J. (2002). Toward a Psychology of Awakening: Buddhism, Psychotherapy and the Path of Personal and Spiritual Transformation. Boston: Shambhala.
[23]. Williams, J. M. G., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). “Mindfulness: Diverse perspectives on its meaning, origins, and multiple applications at the intersection of science and dharma”. Contemporary Buddhism: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 12, No. 01, pp.18. doi:10.1080/14639947. 2011.564811.

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article
Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.