Whale Optimization Algorithm Based Optimal MPPT of PV Power Plant (Real Case Study)

Sayed A. Helal *, M. A. Ebrahim **, Nessreen M. Rady ***, Mohamed M. Salama****
* North Cairo for Electricity Distribution Company, Cairo, Egypt.
**,**** Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt.
*** New and Renewable Department of Egyptian Electricity Holding Company, Cairo, Egypt.
Periodicity:January - March'2019
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26634/jee.12.3.15144


This study employs an advanced meta-heuristic optimization technique called Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) to adjust a novel Incremental Conductance (IC) based maximum power point tracking controllers for one section of a practical photovoltaic (PV) station with an overall capacity of 10 MW. Different scenarios of solar irradiance, temperature variation, and load fluctuations were used to check the feasibility of the proposed optimizer. The simulation analysis of Matlab™/Simulink results show that dynamic behavior enhancement of the overall PV system can be increased via PI/FOPI controllers tuned with in a shorter time.


Incremental Conductance, Proportional-Integral, Fractional Order Proportional- Integral, Whale Optimization Algorithm, Perturb and Observe.

How to Cite this Article?

Helal , S., A., Ebrahim, M., A., Rady, N., M., & Salama, M., M. (2019). Whale Optimization Algorithm Based Optimal MPPT of Pv Power Plant (Real Case Study)i-manager’s Journal on Electrical Engineering, 12(3), 42-55. https://doi.org/10.26634/jee.12.3.15144


[1]. Ahmed, J., & Salam, Z. (2018). An enhanced adaptive P&O MPPT for fast and efficient tracking under varying environmental conditions. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 9(3), 1487-1496.
[2]. Ahmed, M., Ebrahim, M. A., Ramadan, H. S., & Becherif, M. (2015). Optimal genetic-sliding mode control of VSC-HVDC transmission systems. Energy Procedia, 74, 1048-1060.
[3]. Al Badwawi, R., Issa, W. R., Mallick, T. K., &Abusara, M. (2019). Supervisory control for power management of an islanded AC microgrid using a frequency signalling-based Fuzzy Logic Controller. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 10(1), 94-104.
[4]. Al-Dhaifallah, M., Nassef, A. M., Rezk, H., & Nisar, K. S. (2018). Optimal parameter design of fractional order control based INC-MPPT for PV system. Solar Energy, 159, 650-664.
[5]. Ali, A. M., Ebrahim, M., & Hassan, M. M. (2016). Automatic voltage generation control for two area power system based on particle swarm optimization. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2(1), 132.
[6]. Anoop, K., & Nandakumar, M. (2018, January). A novel maximum power point tracking method based on particle swarm optimization combined with one cycle control. In 2018 International Conference on Power, Instrumentation, Control and Computing (PICC) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
[7]. Aouchiche, N., Aitcheikh, M. S., Becherif, M., & Ebrahim, M. A. (2018). AI-based global MPPT for partial shaded grid connected PV plant via MFO approach. Solar Energy, 171, 593-603.
[8]. Aouchiche, N., Cheikh, M. A., Becherif, M., Ebrahim, M. A., & Hadjarab, A. (2017, October). Fuzzy logic approach based MPPT for the dynamic performance improvement for PV systems. In 2017 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering-Boumerdes (ICEE-B) (pp. 1-7). IEEE.
[9]. Askarzadeh, A., & Rezazadeh, A. (2013). Artificial bee swarm optimization algorithm for parameters identification of solar cell models. Applied Energy, 102, 943-949.
[10]. Behera, T. K., Behera, M. K., & Nayak, N. (2018, March). Spider monkey based improve P&O MPPT controller for photovoltaic generation system. In 2018 Technologies for Smart-City Energy Security and Power (ICSESP) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
[11]. Benmouna, A., Becherif, M., Depernet, D., & Ebrahim, M. A. (2018). Novel energy management technique for hybrid electric vehicle via interconnection and damping assignment passivity based control. Renewable Energy, 119, 116-128.
[12]. Betti, A. M., Ebrahim, M. A., & Hassan, M. M. (2018, December). Modeling and control of stand-alone PV system based on Fractional-Order PID Controller. In 2018 Twentieth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON) (pp. 377-382). IEEE.
[13]. Bijukumar, B., Raam, A. G. K., Ganesan, S. I., Nagamani, C., & Reddy, M. J. B. (2018). MPPT algorithm for thermoelectric generators based on parabolic extrapolation. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution.
[14]. Chen, Y., Vepa, R., & Shaheed, M. H. (2018). Enhanced and speedy energy extraction from a scaled-up pressure retarded osmosis process with a whale optimization based maximum power point tracking. Energy, 153, 618-627.
[15]. Cherukuri, S. K., & Rayapudi, S. R. (2017). Enhanced Grey Wolf Optimizer based MPPT Algorithm of PV system under Partial Shaded Condition. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(3), 203.
[16]. Derick, M., Rani, C., Rajesh, M., Farrag, M. E., Wang, Y., & Busawon, K. (2017). An improved optimization technique for estimation of solar photovoltaic parameters. Solar Energy, 157, 116-124.
[17]. Diab, A. A. Z., & Rezk, H. (2017). Global MPPT based on flower pollination and differential evolution algorithms to mitigate partial shading in building integrated PV system. Solar Energy, 157, 171-186.
[18]. Ebrahim, M. A., AbdelHadi, H. A., Mahmoud, H. M., Saied, E. M., & Salama, M. M. (2016). Optimal design of MPPT controllers for grid connected photovoltaic array system. International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, 17(5), 511-517.
[19]. Ebrahim, M. A., Ali, A. M., & Hassan, M. M. (2017). Frequency and voltage control of multi area power system via novel particle swarm optimization techniques. International Journal of Computer Research, 24(4), 427- 474.
[20]. Ebrahim, M. A., Aziz, B. A., Osman, F. A., & Nashed, M. N. (2018, December). Optimal PI based secondary control for autonomous Micro-Grid via Particle Swarm Optimization technique. In 2018 Twentieth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON) (pp. 1148-1155). IEEE.
[21]. Ebrahim, M. A., Becherif, M., & Abdelaziz, A. Y. (2018). Dynamic performance enhancement for wind energy conversion system using Moth-Flame Optimization based blade pitch controller. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 27, 206-212.
[22]. Ebrahim, M. A., El-Metwally, K. A., Bendary, F. M., & Mansour, W. M. (2012). Transient stability enhancement of a wind energy distributed generation system by using fuzzy logic stabilizers. Wind Engineering, 36(6), 687-700.
[23]. Ebrahim, M. A., El-Metwally, K. A., Bendary, F. M., Mansour, W. M., Ramadan, H. S., Ortega, R., & Romero, J. (2011). Optimization of proportional-integral-differential controller for wind power plant using particle swarm optimization technique. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Science and Engineering.
[24]. Ebrahim, M. A., Elyan, T., Wadie, F., & Abd-Allah, M. A. (2017). Optimal design of RC snubber circuit for mitigating transient overvoltage on VCB via hybrid FFT/Wavelet Genetic approach. Electric Power Systems Research, 143, 451-461.
[25]. Ebrahim, M. A., Mostafa, H. E., Gawish, S. A., &Bendary, F. M. (2009, November). Design of decentralized load frequency based-PID controller using stochastic particle swarm optimization technique. In 2009 International Conference on Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems,(EPECS) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
[26]. Ebrahimi, A., & Khamehchi, E. (2016). Sperm whale algorithm: An effective metaheuristic algorithm for production optimization problems. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 29, 211-222.
[27]. Elazab, O. S., Hasanien, H. M., Elgendy, M. A., & Abdeen, A. M. (2017). Whale optimisation algorithm for photovoltaic model identification. The Journal of Engineering, 2017(13), 1906-1911.
[28]. Gupta, S., & Saurabh, K. (2017, July). Modified artificial killer whale optimization algorithm for maximum power point tracking under partial shading condition. In 2017 International Conference on Recent Trends in Electrical, Electronics and Computing Technologies (ICRTEECT) (pp. 87-92). IEEE.
[29]. Hsu, T. W., Wu, H. H., Tsai, D. L., & Wei, C. L. (2019). Photovoltaic energy harvester with fractional open-circuit voltage based maximum power point tracking circuit. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, 66(2), 257-261.
[30]. Husain, M. A., Khan, A., Tariq, A., Khan, Z. A., & Jain, A. (2018). Aspects involved in the modeling of PV system, comparison of MPPT schemes, and study of different ambient conditions using P&O method. In System and Architecture (pp. 285-303). Springer, Singapore.
[31]. Hussien, S. A., & Mahmoud, H. (2017). Optimal placement and sizing of DGs in distribution system for improving voltage profile and reducing the power loss using moth flame optimization technique. Int. J. Sci. Res. Eng. Technol., 6, 161-167.
[32]. Iftikhar, R., Ahmad, I., Arsalan, M., Naz, N., Ali, N., & Armghan, H. (2018). MPPT for photovoltaic system using nonlinear controller. International Journal of Photoenergy, 2018.
[33]. Jagatheesan, K., Anand, B., & Ebrahim, M. A. (2014). Stochastic particle swarm optimization for tuning of PID controller in load frequency control of single area reheat thermal power system. Int. J. Electr. Power Eng, 8(2), 33-40.
[34]. Jagatheesan, K., Anand, B., Dey, N., & Ebrahim, M. A. (2016). Design of proportional-integral-derivative controller using stochastic particle swarm optimization technique for single-area AGC including SMES and RFB units. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer and Communication Technologies (pp. 299- 309). Springer, New Delhi.
[35]. Jordehi, A. R. (2018). Enhanced leader particle swarm optimisation (ELPSO): An efficient algorithm for parameter estimation of photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules. Solar Energy, 159, 78-87.
[36]. Keyrouz, F. (2018). Enhanced Bayesian based MPPT controller for PV systems. IEEE Power and Energy Technology Systems Journal, 5(1), 11-17.
[37]. Kumar, C. S., & Rao, R. S. (2016). A novel global MPP tracking of photovoltaic system based on whale optimization algorithm. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3), 225-232.
[38]. Kumar, N., Hussain, I., Singh, B., & Panigrahi, B. K. (2017). MPPT in dynamic condition of partially shaded PV system by using WODE technique. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 8(3), 1204-1214.
[39]. Kumar, N., Hussain, I., Singh, B., & Panigrahi, B. K. (2018a). Self-adaptive incremental conductance algorithm for swift and ripple-free maximum power harvesting from PV array. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 14(5), 2031-2041.
[40]. Kumar, N., Singh, B., & Panigrahi, B. K. (2018b, March). Discrete noise-eliminating second order generalized integrator based control strategy applied to grid-integrated solar PV synchronization converter. In 2018 IEEMA Engineer Infinite Conference (eTechNxT) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
[41]. Laagoubi, T., Bouzi, M., &Benchagra, M. (2018). MPPT and power factor control for grid connected PV systems with fuzzy logic controllers. Int. J. Power Electron. Drive Syst., 9, 105-113.
[42]. Li, H., Yang, D., Su, W., Lü, J., & Yu, X. (2019). An overall distribution particle swarm optimization MPPT algorithm for photovoltaic system under partial shading. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 66(1), 265-275.
[43]. Maher, M., Ebrahim, M. A., Mohamed, E. A., & Mohamed, A. (2017). Ant-lion Optimizer Based Optimal Allocation of Distributed Generators in Radial Distribution Networks. International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems, 1(7), 225-238.
[44]. Mathew, D., Rani, C., Kumar, M. R., Wang, Y., Binns, R., & Busawon, K. (2018). Wind-driven optimization technique for estimation of solar photovoltaic parameters. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 8(1), 248-256.
[45]. Mirjalili, S., & Lewis, A. (2016). The whale optimization algorithm. Advances in Engineering Software, 95, 51-67.
[46]. Mohamed, R. G., Ebrahim, M. A., Bendary, F. M., & Osman, S. A. A. (2017). Transient stability enhancement for 20 MW PV power plant via incremental conductance controller. International Journal of System Dynamics Applications (IJSDA), 6(4), 102-123.
[47]. Motahhir, S., El Ghzizal, A., Sebti, S., & Derouich, A. (2018). Modeling of photovoltaic system with modified incremental conductance algorithm for fast changes of irradiance. International Journal of Photoenergy, 2018.
[48]. Mousa, M. E., Ebrahim, M. A., & Hassan, M. M. (2015). Stabilizing and swinging-up the inverted pendulum using PI and PID controllers based on reduced linear quadratic regulator tuned by PSO. International Journal of System Dynamics Applications (IJSDA), 4(4), 52-69.
[49]. Mousa, M. E., Ebrahim, M. A., & Hassan, M. M. (2017). Optimal Fractional Order Proportional-Integral-Differential Controller for Inverted Pendulum with Reduced Order Linear Quadratic Regulator. In Fractional Order Control and Synchronization of Chaotic Systems (pp. 225-252). Springer, Cham.
[50]. Omar, M., Ebrahim, M. A., Ghany, A. A., & Bendary, F. (2016). Tuning of PID controller for load frequency control problem via harmony search algorithm. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1(2), 255-263.
[51]. Oshaba, A. S., Ali, E. S., & Elazim, S. A. (2017). PI controller design using ABC algorithm for MPPT of PV system supplying DC motor pump load. Neural Computing and Applications, 28(2), 353-364.
[52]. Osman, S. A., Mohamed, R. G., Ebrahim, M. A., & Bendary, F. A. (2017). Optimal tuning of fuzzy logic controller parameters for incremental conductance mppt controller based on grey wolf optimizer algorithm. Journal of Al Azhar University Engineering Sector, 12(45), 1417- 1426.
[53]. Pandiarajan, N., & Muthu, R. (2011, January). Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic module with st Simulink. In 2011 1 International Conference on Electrical Energy Systems (pp. 258-263). IEEE.
[54]. Ramadan, H. S. (2017). Optimal fractional order PI control applicability for enhanced dynamic behavior of on-grid solar PV systems. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(7), 4017-4031.
[55]. Samosir, A. S., Gusmedi, H., Purwiyanti, S., & Komalasari, E. (2018). Modeling and simulation of fuzzy logic based Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for PV application. International Journal of Electrical & Computer Engineering, 8(3).
[56]. Soni, Y. K., & Bhatt, R. (2013). BF-PSO optimized PID controller design using ISE, IAE, IATE and MSE error criteria. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET), 2(7), 2333-2336.
[57]. Soued, S., Ebrahim, M. A., Ramadan, H. S., & Becherif, M. (2017). Optimal blade pitch control for enhancing the dynamic performance of wind power plants via metaheuristicoptimisers. IET Electric Power Applications, 11(8), 1432-1440.
[58]. Tafti, H. D., Maswood, A. I., Konstantinou, G., Pou, J., & Blaabjerg, F. (2018). A general constant power generation algorithm for photovoltaic systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 33(5), 4088-4101.
[59]. Villalva, M. G., Gazoli, J. R., & Ruppert Filho, E. (2009, September). Modeling and circuit-based simulation of photovoltaic arrays. In 2009 Brazilian Power Electronics Conference (pp. 1244-1254). IEEE.
[60]. Wang, J., Yang, W., Du, P., & Li, Y. (2018). Research and application of a hybrid forecasting framework based on multi-objective optimization for electrical power system. Energy, 148, 59-78.
[61]. Xing, Y., Wang, D., & Wang, L. (2018). A novel dynamic generalized opposition-based grey wolf optimization algorithm. Algorithms, 11(4), 47.

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article
Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.
Submit New Paper Track Paper Status Buy Journal Track Your Subscription Journal Archive