Willingness to Communicate and Communication Anxiety of EFL Learners in a Virtual World

Galip Kartal*, Cem Balçikanli**
* Assistant Professor, English Language Teaching Department, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey.
** Associate Professor, English Language Teaching Department, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.
Periodicity:October - December'2018
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26634/jet.15.3.14549

Abstract

This mixed-method study explored the changes in Turkish EFL learners' reported willingness to communicate and communication anxiety after conducting ten real-life tasks in a virtual world. Sixty-five university EFL learners (experimental = 30; control = 35) participated in this study. The participants were the first-year students of a foreign language teacher education program in Turkey. The intervention involved ten real-life tasks, one task each week. Data were collected via questionnaires, introspective interviews, weekly evaluation forms, observation, and focus-group and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaire data were analyzed through ANCOVA tests, and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. Overall results suggested that using a virtual world had a positive effect on the reported WTC and communication anxiety of participants who participated in the experiment compared to those who did not. Furthermore, the study suggests a model (NATURAL vs MATURAL) that explains the nature of communication in traditional classrooms and in a virtual world. These results suggest that incorporating virtual worlds in EFL context is worth the investment. Moreover, virtual worlds can become useful tools for learning and teaching of English because the interactions within the environment and learners' positive views on it are promising authentic and effective communication.

Keywords

Willingness to Communicate, Communication Anxiety, EFL, Virtual Worlds, Second Life

How to Cite this Article?

Kartal, G., and Balçikanli, C. (2018). Willingness to Communicate and Communication Anxiety of EFL Learners in a Virtual World. i-manager’s Journal of Educational Technology, 15(3), 7-25. https://doi.org/10.26634/jet.15.3.14549

References

[1]. Arslantas, T. K. (2012). Students’ experiences and perceptions of anxiety, motivation, and self-Confidence in speaking English during task-based language learning activities in second life: The case of METU. (Unpublished Master's Thesis, Ankara, Turkey).
[2]. Axelsson, A. S., Abelin, A., & Schroeder, R. (2003). Anyone speak Spanish?: Language encounters in multi-user virtual environments and the influence of technology. New Media Society, 5(4), 475-498.
[3]. Aydın, S. (2008). An investigationon the language anxiety and fear of negative evaluation among Turkish EFL learners. Asian EFL Journal, 30, 421-444.
[4]. Balçıkanlı, C. (2012). Language learning in Second Life: American and Turkish students’ experiences. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 13(2), 131-146.
[5]. Barab, S., Thomas, M. Dodge, T., Carteaux, R. & Tuzun, H. (2005). Making learning fun: Quest Atlantis, a game without guns. Educational Technology Research & Development, 53(1), 86-107.
[6]. Bektaş-Çetinkaya, Y. (2005). Turkish collage students' willingness to communicate in English as a foreign language (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, USA: The Ohio State University).
[7]. Bektaş-Çetinkaya, Y. (2007). Turkish students' willingness to communicate in English. Dokuz Eylül Üniversiy, Buca Education Faculty Journal, 21, 115-123.
[8]. Bellotti, F., Berta, R., de Gloria, A., & Primavera, L. (2010). Supporting authors in the development of taskbased learning in serious virtual worlds. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 86-107.
[9]. Bender, T. (2005). Role playing in online education: A teaching tool to enhance student engagement and sustained learning. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 1(4), 1-7.
[10]. Blake, R.(2000). Computer-media t e d communication: A window on L2 Spanish interlanguage. Language Learning & Technology, 4(1), 20-36.
[11]. Blasing, M. T. (2010). Second language in Second Life: Exploring interaction, identity and pedagogical practice in a virtual world. Slavic East European Journal, 54(1), 96- 117.
[12]. Boyce, J. S., Alber-Morgan, S. R., & Riley, J. G. (2007). Fearless public speaking: Oral presentation activities for the elementary classroom. Childhood Education, 83(3), 142-150.
[13]. Chen, J. C. (2016). The crossroads of English language learners, task-based instruction, and 3D multi-user virtual learning in Second Life. Computers & Education, 102, 152-171. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j. compedu.2016.08.004
[14]. Cheong, D. (2010). The effects of practice teaching sessions in Second Life on the change in pre-service teachers' teaching efficacy. Computes and Education, 55(2), 868-880.
[15]. Chittaro, L., & Ranon, R. (2007). Web3D technologies in learning, education, and training: Motivations, issues, and opportunities. Computers and Education, 49(1), 3-18.
[16]. Cohen, J. (1962). The statistical power of abnormal-social psychological research: A review. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 65(3), 145-153.
[17]. Cooke-Plagwitz, J. (2008). New directions in CALL: An objective introduction to Second Life. CALICO Journal, 25(3), 547-557.
[18]. Couto, S. M. (2010). Second Life - anxiety-free language learning? 3rd ICT for Language Learning Conference Proceedings 2010.
[19]. Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
[20]. Dalgarno, B., & Lee, M. J. W. (2010). What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments? British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 10-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01038.x
[21]. de Freitas, S. (2008). Serious Virtual Worlds: A scoping study. Joint Information Systems Committee. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/seriousvitualworldsv1.pdf
[22]. de Lucia, A., Francese, R., Passero, I., & Tortora, G. (2009). Development and evaluation of a system enhancing Second Life to support synchronous role-based collaborative learning. Software: Practice and Experience, 39(12), 1015-1054.
[23]. Deutschmann, M., Panichi, L., & Molka-Danielsen, J. (2009). Designing oral participation in Second Life: A comparative study of two language proficiency courses. ReCALL, 21(2), 206-226.
[24]. Dickey, M. (2005). Three-dimensional virtual worlds and distance learning: Two case studies of Active Worlds as a medium for distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(3), 439-451.
[25]. Discipio, T. (2008). Adapting social networking to st address 21st -century skills. MultiMedia & Internet @ Schools, 15(5), 10-11.
[26]. Duffy, T. M., & Jonassen, D. (1992). Constructivism: New implications for instructional technology. In T. M. Duffy & D. Jonassen (Eds.), Constructivism and the Technology of Instruction: A Conversation (pp. 1-16). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[27]. Egbert, J. (2003). A study of flow theory in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 87(4), 499-518.
[28]. Felix, U. (2002). The Web as a vehicle for constructivist approaches in Language Teaching. ReCALL, 14(1), 2-15.
[29]. Freiermuth, M., & Jarrell, D. (2006). Willingness to communicate: Can online chat help? International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 16(2), 189-212.
[30]. Garrison, R. (2009). Implications of online learning for the conceptual development and practice of distance education. Journal of Distance Education, 23(2), 93-104.
[31]. Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2000). Stimulated Recall Methodology in Second Language Research. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[32]. Goh, D., & Kale, U. (2016). The urban–rural gap: project-based learning with Web 2.0 among West Virginian teachers. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 25(3), 355-376.
[33]. Greenhow, C., & Askari, E. (2017). Learning and teaching with social network sites: A decade of research in K-12 related education. Education and Information Technology, 22(2), 623-645.
[34]. Hashimoto, Y. (2002). Motivation and willingness to communicate as predictors of reported L2 use: The Japanese ESL context. Second Language Studies, 20(2), 29-70.
[35]. Hislope, K. (2009). Language learning in a virtual world. The International Journal of Learning, 15(11), 51- 58.
[36]. Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132.
[37]. Huang, H., Rauch, U., & Liaw, S. (2010). Investigating learners' attitudes toward virtual reality learning environments: Based on a constructivist approach. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1171-1182.
[38]. İstifçi, I., Lomidazde, T., & Demiray, U. (2011). An effective role of e-learning technology for English language teaching by meta communication actors. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 12(4), 201- 211.
[39]. Jackson, J. (2002). Reticence in second language case discussions: Anxiety and aspirations. System, 30(1), 65-84.
[40]. Jamaludin, A., Chee, Y. S., & Ho, C. M. L. (2009). Fostering argumentative knowledge construction through enactive role play in Second Life. Computers & Education, 53(2), 317-329.
[41]. Jarmon, L., Traphagan, T., Mayrath, M., & Trivedi, A. (2009). Virtual world teaching, experiential learning, and assessment: An interdisciplinary communication course in Second Life. Computers & Education, 53(1), 169-182.
[42]. Jauregi, K., & Canto, S. (2012). Impact of nativenonnative speaker interaction through video-web communication and Second Life on students' intercultural communicative competence. In L. Bradley, & S. Thouesny (Eds.), CALL: Using, Learning, Knowing. Proceedings of EUROCALL Conference (pp. 151-155). http://dx.doi.org/ 10.14705/rpnet.2012.000043.
[43]. Jee, M. J. (2010). ESL students' interaction in Second Life: Task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin: Texas).
[44]. Johnson, N. (2006). The Educational Potential of Second Life. Ohio: Digital Union.
[45]. Kruk, M. (2014). The use of Internet resources and browser-based virtual worlds in teaching grammar. The Journal of Teaching with Technology, 14(2), 52-67.
[46]. Kuiper, E., & Volman, M. (2008). The Web as a source of information for students in K–12 education. In J. Coiro, M. Knobel, C. Lankshear & D. Leu (Eds.), Handbook of Research on New Literacies (pp. 241-266). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[47]. Lan, Y. J., Kan, Y. H., Hsiao, I. Y., Yang, S. J., & Chang, K. E. (2013). Designing interaction tasks in Second Life for Chinese as a foreign language learners: A preliminary exploration. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 29(2), 184-202.
[48]. Lee, L. (2002). Synchronous online exchanges: A study of modification devices on non-native discourse. System, 30(3), 275-288.
[49]. Lee, S. Y., Ahn, S. C., Kim, H. G., & Lim, M. (2006). Real-time 3D video avatar in mixed reality: An implementation for immersive telecommunication. Simulation & Gaming, 37(4), 491-506.
[50]. Léger, D. D. S., & Storch, N. (2009). Learners' perceptions and attitudes: Implications for willingness to communicate in an L2 classroom. System, 37(2), 269- 285.
[51]. Liou, H. C. (2012). The roles of Second Life in a college computer-assisted language learning (CALL) course in Taiwan, ROC. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 25(4), 365-382.
[52]. MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning, 41(1), 85- 115.
[53]. MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1994). The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44(2), 283-305.
[54]. MacIntyre, P. D. (1999). Language anxiety: A review of the research for language teachers. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Affect in Foreign Language and Second Language Learning: A Practical Guide to Creating a Low-anxiety Classroom Atmosphere (pp. 24-45). Boston: McGraw-Hill College.
[55]. MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15(1), 3-26.
[56]. MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clement, R., & Donovan, L. A. (2003). Talking in order to learn: willingness to communicate and intensive language programs. Canadian Modern Language Review, 59(4), 589-607.
[57]. MacIntyre, P. D., Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizingwillingness to communicate in a L2: A situated model of confidence and affiliation. Modern Language Journal, 82, 545-562.
[58]. Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2012). Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
[59]. McCroskey, J. C (1992). Reliability and validity of the willingness to communicate scale. Communication Quarterly, 40(1), 16-25.
[60]. McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, CO.
[61]. Notari, M. P., & Honegger, B. D. (2010). Learning in an Active, Collaborative Space. In M. Ebner, & M. Schiefner (Eds.), Looking Toward the Future of Technology- Enhanced Education: Ubiquitous Learning and the Digital Native (pp. 275-294). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
[62]. Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching & Learning. Florence, KY: Heinle & Heinle.
[63]. Öz, H. (2014). Personality traits and willingness to communicate among foreign language learners in Turkey. Social Behavior and Personality an International Journal, 42(9), 1473-1482.
[64]. Öz, H., Demirezen, M., & Pourfeiz, J. (2015). Willingness to communicate of EFL learners in Turkish context. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 269- 275.
[65]. Panichi, L., Deutschmann, M., & Molka-Danielsen, J. (2010). Virtual worlds for language learning and intercultural exchange – Is it for real? In S. Guth and F. Helm (Eds), Telecollaboration 2.0: Languages, Literacies and Intercultural Learning in the 21st Century (pp. 165-195). Bern: Peter Lang,
[66]. Patton, M. Q. (2014). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[67]. Peng, J. E. (2007). Willingness to communicate in an L2 and integrative motivation among college students in an intensive English language program in China. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 2(1), 33-59.
[68]. Peterson, M. (2006). Learner interaction management in an avatar and chat-based virtual world. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19(1), 79-103.
[69]. Pfeil, U., Ang, C. S., & Zaphiris, P. (2009). Issues and challenges of teaching and learning in 3D virtual worlds: Real life case studies. Educational Media International, 46(3), 223-238.
[70]. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. NCB University Press, 9(5), 1-6.
[71]. Richards, J. C. (2015). The changing face of language learning: Learning beyond the classroom. RELC Journal, 46(1), 5-22.
[72]. Richardson, W. (2006). Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin.
[73]. Rosen, D., & Nelson, C. (2008). Web 2.0: A new generation of learners and education. Computers in the Schools, 25(3-4), 211-225.
[74]. Shih, Y. C., & Yang, M. T. (2008). A collaborative virtual environment for situated language learning using vec3d. Educational Technology & Society, 11(1), 56-68.
[75]. Smith, R. C. (2003). Teacher education for teacherlearner autonomy. In Trappes-Lomax, H. (Ed.). Proceedings of 'Autonomy in Language Teacher Education' (The 9 IALS Symposium for Language Teacher Educators).
[76]. Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2007). Web 2.0: New Tools, New Schools. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.
[77]. Stoerger, S. M. (2010). Pedagogical Practices in a Virtual World: An Ethnographic and Discourse Analysis Approach (Master's Thesis, Indiana University, US-Indiana).
[78]. Sweeney, P., Palomeque, C., González, D., Speck, C., Canfield, D. W., Guerrero, S., & MacKichan, P. (2011). Task Design for Language Learning in an Embodied Environment. In G. Vincenti, & J. Braman (Eds.), Teaching through Multi-user Virtual Environments: Applying Dynamic Elements to the Modern Classroom (pp. 259- 282). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
[79]. Sykes, J. M., Oskoz, A., & Thorne, S. L. (2008). Web 2.0, Synthetic Immersive Environments, and Mobile Resources for Language Education. CALICO Journal, 25(3), 528-46.
[80]. van den Branden, K. (2006). Task-based Language Teaching: From Theory to Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[81]. Wagner, C., & Ip, R. K. (2009). Action learning with Second Life – A pilot study. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20(2), 249-258.
[82]. Wang, C. X., Song, H., Xia, F., & Yan, Q. (2009). Integrating Second Life into an EFL program: Students' perspectives. Journal of Educational Technology Development and Exchange, 2(1), 1-16.
[83]. Warburton, S. (2009). Second Life in higher education: Assessing the potential for and the barriers to deploying virtual worlds in learning and teaching. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), 414-426.
[84]. Wehner, A. K., Gump, A. W., & Downey, S. (2011). The effects of Second Life on the motivation of undergraduate students learning a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(3), 277-289.
[85]. Wen, W. P., & Clement, R. (2003). A Chinese conceptualisation of willingness to communicate in ESL. Language. Culture and Curriculum, 16(1), 18-38.
[86]. Wertsch, J. V. (1985). Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[87]. Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. The Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 54-66.
[88]. Yashima, T., Zenuk-Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning, 54(1), 119-152. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 9922.2004.00250.x
[89]. Zuengler, J., & Miller, E. R. (2006). Cognitive and Sociocultural Perspectives: Two Parallel SLA Worlds? TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 35-58.

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
USD EUR INR USD-ROW
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article
Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.