Abstract

Target Localization and Tracking are the primary challenges for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), where adding GPS receivers or other tracking based sensors to every node could be expensive. The use of technology is increased to enrich the experience of sporting events. Such technology, along its associated graphics and statistics not only entertains viewers, but also enables them to gain insight into the performance of athletes. Localization schemes for sensor networks use a small number of seed nodes that know their location and protocols, whereby the locations of other nodes are estimated from the messages sent from all nodes to seed nodes. Several such localization techniques have been proposed, but none of them consider mobile nodes and seeds. The traditional localization methods attain high location accuracy in line of sight (LOS) environment. But the localization accuracy degrades significantly in non-line of sight (NLOS) environment. This paper addresses the problems of tracking a mobile target by localizing a node. It appears that mobility would make localization more difficult. To solve this problem, the Gauss-Newton algorithm is adopted in this paper. It uses connectivity information to find the location of nodes in a network and can take advantage of additional data, such as estimated distances between neighbours or known positions for certain anchor nodes. It can exploit mobility to improve the accuracy and precision of localization. This scheme outperforms the best known static localization schemes under a wide range of conditions. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB. This approach works much better for topologies in which the shortest path distance between two nodes does not correspond well to their Euclidean distance.

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